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You searched for subject:(D4T). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Georgia

1. Xu, Meng. Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat.

Degree: 2014, University of Georgia

Antiviral drugs are used therapeutically in pregnancy for treatment of both mother and fetus. Antiviral drugs are presumed to prevent viral transmission from mother to fetus by decreasing maternal viral load and/or accumulation of the drugs in the fetal compartment. Due to a number of reasons, pregnant women are generally not used during clinical trials, so very little is known about the behavior of therapeutic agents during pregnancy. A pregnant rat model has been developed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and placental transport of antivirals during pregnancy. Presented here are validated analytical methods for the extraction and quantitation of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zalcitabine (DDC) and stavudine (D4T) in the various matrices needed to support the maternal-fetal pharmacokinetic studies. Also presented here are the pharmacokinetics of DDC and D4T, using the pregnant rat model.

Subjects/Keywords: Analytical; Pharmacokinetics; HIV; Zalcitabine; DDC; Stavudine; D4T; Lamivudine; 3TC; placental transport; fetal disposition

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Xu, M. (2014). Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat. (Thesis). University of Georgia. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10724/25093

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Xu, Meng. “Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat.” 2014. Thesis, University of Georgia. Accessed March 05, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10724/25093.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Xu, Meng. “Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat.” 2014. Web. 05 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Xu M. Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Georgia; 2014. [cited 2021 Mar 05]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10724/25093.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Xu M. Quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agents in the pregnant rat. [Thesis]. University of Georgia; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10724/25093

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


University of Georgia

2. Blue, Shawn Kendale. Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents.

Degree: 2014, University of Georgia

The treatment of HIV/AIDS is one of, if not, the most challenging medical enigmas of the 20th and 21st centuries. At the time of its discovery, HIV patients were predominantly homosexual White males in America. The demographics have changed drastically over the past two decades. Now women make up nearly 50% of global HIV/AIDS patients. The current feminization of HIV demographics has led to another obstacle, mother to child transmission (MTCT). These statistics, coupled with the fact that vertical transmission is the largest factor in the number of newly diagnosed juvenile HIV/AIDS patients, create a need to optimize treatment of HIV positive pregnant women, to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. It has been shown that administration of anti-HIV medications during pregnancy, delivery and to the infant after birth greatly reduces the risk of vertical transmission. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of HIV/AIDS medications alone and in combination during pregnancy is necessary in the development of more effective methods of vertical transmission prophylaxis. Using a pregnant rat model, we have developed analytical methods and investigated the pharmacokinetics and placental transport of anti-HIV drugs alone and in combination. These studies allowed us to determine and understand any possible interactions between drugs in combination. Studies were performed on timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using WinNonlin. While current methods of treating HIV/AIDS patients have been highly successful, the chance of viral mutations and resistance to Anti-Retroviral Therapy often occurs. In order to combat the resistance of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI) and protease inhibitors, scientists have continually searched for additional targets on HIV. For instance, integrase inhibitors, block the action of integrase, a viral enzyme, which integrates HIV DNA into the target cells. We have determined the pharmacokinetic profile of an investigational integrase inhibitor. In vivo animal studies were being performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats and female PXR-KO and hPXR transgenic mice and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using WinNonlin.

Subjects/Keywords: HIV; Pharmacokinetics; Stavudine; Lamivudine; D4T; DDC; Placental Transport; NRTI; Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; HPLC; Antiviral Drugs; Integrase Inhibitors

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Blue, S. K. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents. (Thesis). University of Georgia. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10724/26575

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Blue, Shawn Kendale. “Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents.” 2014. Thesis, University of Georgia. Accessed March 05, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10724/26575.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Blue, Shawn Kendale. “Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents.” 2014. Web. 05 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Blue SK. Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Georgia; 2014. [cited 2021 Mar 05]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10724/26575.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Blue SK. Pharmacokinetics of anti-HIV agents in rodents. [Thesis]. University of Georgia; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10724/26575

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


North-West University

3. Botha, Mario Matthew. Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha .

Degree: 2007, North-West University

HIV/AIDS is the most threatening and challenging infectious diseases of our time, with the highest increase of newly infected cases reported. This infectious disease was discovered in the early eighties under homosexual men and was later to be discovered in heterosexuals. HIV is a systemic immunosuppressive disorder which causes a depletion of CD4+ T cells and develops into the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - AIDS. Africa is the continent most affected by HIV/AIDS with the southern parts of Africa having the highest prevalence rates compared to the rest of Africa. Statistics indicate that AIDS is responsible for 3% of deaths in children worldwide - one in seven people dying of an HIV-related illness is a child under the age of 15 years. It was stated by the WHO that countries should develop improved antiretrovirals regimes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Difficulties in administering antiretrovirals (ARVs) to patients (especially children) are the strict dosage regimes and the severe adverse reactions. These factors complicate patient adherence. The list of problems in treating patients is endless and includes the distribution, stability as well as the low efficacy of these drugs. Most of the above mentioned problems and obstacles related to ARVs and ARV treatment could be minimized or eliminated by the use of a stable and effective drug delivery system. Enhancing ARV treatment may be accomplished by the use of the Pheroid™ drug delivery system. Pheroids™ consists mainly of fatty acids and sterile nitrous oxide gassed water. Pharmacological active substances are entrapped into submicron and micron sized structures called Pheroids™. Research showed promising results and advantages in delivering drugs through oral and transdermal routes using Pheroid™ technology. The focus of this study was to test the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretrovirals using Pheroid™ technology. The assays used to study this possible enhancement were a modified neutral red and a modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. These assays confirmed and illustrated the toxic and protective properties of the tested ARVs (stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine). An MT-2 cell line was used and infected with an HIV-1 strain, SW7-TCL. Applying Pheroid™ technology in these assays resulted in massive cell death, due to increased ARV toxic levels within the cells. Viability tests proved that Pheroids™ had no effect on the viability of cells at the concentration typically used. This confirmed the enhancing properties of Pheroids™ in the delivery of drugs into the cells. The MTT assay was further adapted from a seven day incubation period to a three day incubation period. By using a low concentration series and a three day incubation period the loss of cells through toxicity was partially overcome. One of the problems that arose form this study was the non-reproducibility of the results. Absorbance levels fluctuated at specific concentrations of the same ARV, which cause…

Subjects/Keywords: Lamivudine (3TC); Stavudine (d4T); MTT; Finter's neutral red; Pheroid; Antiretroviral (ARV); HIV and AIDS; Viability

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Botha, M. M. (2007). Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha . (Thesis). North-West University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10394/1064

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Botha, Mario Matthew. “Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha .” 2007. Thesis, North-West University. Accessed March 05, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10394/1064.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Botha, Mario Matthew. “Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha .” 2007. Web. 05 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Botha MM. Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha . [Internet] [Thesis]. North-West University; 2007. [cited 2021 Mar 05]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10394/1064.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Botha MM. Pre-clinical evaluation of the possible enhancement of the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by pheroid technology / M.M. Botha . [Thesis]. North-West University; 2007. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10394/1064

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.