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University of the Western Cape

1. Maboza, Ernest J.M. Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement .

Degree: 2013, University of the Western Cape

Informal settlements are often implicated in surface water pollution with faecal matter. In most instances faecal pollution in the associated surface waters persists despite improvements in sewage removal infrastructure. This study evaluates the importance of investigating the water quality of the Plankenbrug River before it reaches Khayamnandi settlement by comparing water quality in spring and in winter upstream (Pre-Khayamnandi) and downstream (Post- Khayamnandi) from the settlement. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliforms) were enumerated using Chromocult agar. E. coli was further characterized with analytical profiling index (API) and haemolysis assays. Both Pre- and Post-Khayamnandi were not significantly different from each other for both total coliforms and E. coli in winter. Pre-Khayamnandi had between 105 and 108 cfu/100 ml for total coliforms while Post-Khayamnandi had total coliform colony count between 106 and 107 cfu/100 ml. E. coli also exhibited a similar pattern with slightly higher counts at Post-Khayamnandi with colony counts from 104 to 107 and 105 to 107 cfu/100 ml. Spring microbial count demonstrated a significant difference to winter counts within each test site (p ≤ 0.01) and across the two sites (p ≤ 0.05). Both total coliforms and E. coli were 102 fold higher at Post-Khayamnandi than at Pre-Khayamnandi in spring. The API assay demonstrated significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the two test sites. Pre- Khayamnandi predominantly had two different profiles while Post-Khayamnandi had three. These profiles represented five distinct E. coli biotypes. Sorbitol and sucrose tests within the API assay demonstrated significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the two test sites. The prevalence of sorbitol fermenters at Pre-Khayamnandi was 100% while at Post-Khayamnandi it was 73%. Pre-Khayamnandi also demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of sucrose fermenters than Post-Khayamnandi at 100% and 59% respectively. These differences indicated dissimilar sources of faecal contamination around these sites. Differences in the distributions of sorbitol and sucrose fermenting biotypes demonstrate different toxicity potentials across these two test sites. The haemolysis assay demonstrated that 9% of isolates were haemolytic with reference to both known α- and β-haemolyitic streptococci at Post-Khayamnandi. At Pre-Khayamnandi there was a higher percentage of α- and β-haemolyitic species, 29% and 28%, respectively. Post- Khayamnandi and Pre-Khayamnandi were significantly different from each other with reference to both α- and β-haemolysis (p ≤ 0.05). These haemolytic activities also demonstrate different toxicity potentials across the two sites. In conclusion Khayamnandi contributes to an already heavy faecal load in the Plankenbrug River. Thus remedial measures to maintain high surface water quality of Plankenbrug River should be directed upstream from the Khayamnandi settlement as well as within the settlement equally. This study… Advisors/Committee Members: Africa, Charlene (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: β-D-glucuronide; Chromocult agar; Faecal contamination; Sucrose fermentation; Surface water; Toxicity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Maboza, E. J. M. (2013). Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement . (Thesis). University of the Western Cape. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4264

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Maboza, Ernest J M. “Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement .” 2013. Thesis, University of the Western Cape. Accessed September 17, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4264.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Maboza, Ernest J M. “Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement .” 2013. Web. 17 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Maboza EJM. Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement . [Internet] [Thesis]. University of the Western Cape; 2013. [cited 2019 Sep 17]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4264.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Maboza EJM. Toxicology and molecular epidemiology of microbes detected in surface water in the Western Cape: The Impact of Informal Settlement . [Thesis]. University of the Western Cape; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4264

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Pöppl Neto, José Carlos. Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto.

Degree: Mestrado, Química na Agricultura e no Ambiente, 2013, University of São Paulo

Para o uso agrícola de composto de lodo de esgoto, há escassez de informações sobre os elementos Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se e Zn, que podem contaminar o ambiente. Os elementos Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni e Pb, metais pesados e o Se, um ametal, de modo geral, têm sido pouco avaliados, principalmente pelos baixos teores no solo e na planta. Dessa forma, com o presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar os teores de Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se e Zn no solo e na cultura da cana-açúcar em função da aplicação de composto de lodo de esgoto. O experimento foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, primeira cana soca cultivada em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram aplicadas quatro doses de composto de lodo (0; 14,7; 29,4 e 44,5 t ha-1, base seca), quatro de nitrogênio (0, 36,3 ; 72,6 e 110 kg ha-1) e duas de P2O5 (0, 30 kg ha-1), em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x4x2, com três repetições. Foram aplicados 77 kg ha-1 de K2O em todas as parcelas para suprir a falta desse nutriente no composto. Os teores dos metais pesados foram determinados por espectrometria de massas com plasma acoplado (ICP-MS). A aplicação dos fertilizantes minerais nitrogenado e fosfatado não resultou em incremento nos teores dos metais pesados no solo e na planta. A aplicação do composto resultou em incremento de duas vezes nos teores iniciais de Zn no solo e na planta. Para Cd, Ni, Pb e Se, houve aumento nos teores do solo e da planta, em faixas que variam de 12% a 60%, em relação ao tratamento sem composto. Para o Cu, foi observado um incremento de 13% no solo, porém sem alterar o teor na planta. Os teores Ba e Cr no solo e na cana-de-açúcar não foram alterados pela aplicação do composto de lodo de esgoto. Para todos os elementos, os teores observados estiveram dentro da faixa considerada normal para solo e planta. A aplicação de composto de lodo de esgoto, dentro dos critérios técnicos e no modelo de condução do experimento de um ano de cultivo, não resulta em contaminação do ambiente canavieiro pelos elementos avaliados

For agricultural use of sewage sludge compost, there is few information on the elements Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn, that can contaminate the environment. The elements Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb, heavy metals, and the Se, one nonmetal, generally have been little evaluated especially by low levels in soil and plant. The present study objected to evaluate the effects of application of sewage sludge compost on the content of Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in soil and the sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a commercial area of production of sugarcane, first ratoon cane, cultivated in a Rhodic Paleudalf. There were applied four doses of sludge compost (0, 14.7, 29.4 and 44.5 t ha-1, dry basis), four of N rates (0, 36.3, 72.6 and 110 kg ha-1) and two of P2O5 (0 and 30 kg ha-1), in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme 4x4x2 with three replications. Were applied 77 kg ha-1 of K2O in all plots to supply the lack of this nutrient in the compost. The concentration of heavy…

Advisors/Committee Members: Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton.

Subjects/Keywords: Compost class "D"; Compostagem; Composting; Composto classe "D"; Contaminação do Solo; Elementos traços; Heavy metals; Metais pesados; Saccharum spp; Saccharum spp; Soil contamination; Trace elements

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Pöppl Neto, J. C. (2013). Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto. (Masters Thesis). University of São Paulo. Retrieved from http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/64/64135/tde-17012014-095856/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Pöppl Neto, José Carlos. “Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto.” 2013. Masters Thesis, University of São Paulo. Accessed September 17, 2019. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/64/64135/tde-17012014-095856/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Pöppl Neto, José Carlos. “Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto.” 2013. Web. 17 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Pöppl Neto JC. Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of São Paulo; 2013. [cited 2019 Sep 17]. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/64/64135/tde-17012014-095856/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Pöppl Neto JC. Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto. [Masters Thesis]. University of São Paulo; 2013. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/64/64135/tde-17012014-095856/ ;

3. Caesar, Lindsay Kate. Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria.

Degree: MS, Plant and Environmental Science, 2015, Clemson University

Hellebores (Helleborus spp.) are winter-­‐flowering ornamental plants that are difficult to propagate in tissue culture. To improve the performance of hellebores during micropropagation, preliminary tests were done to standardize temperature and light quality. The effects of growth hormone type and concentration on plant multiplication were also assessed. Performance remained low, and plantlets often displayed visible contamination. Advisors/Committee Members: Dr. Jeffrey Adelberg, Dr. James E. Faust, Dr. Annel K. Greene, Dr. Sarah A. White.

Subjects/Keywords: contamination management; D-optimization; endophytes; Hellebore; micropropagation; nutrient supply

contamination)… …In this paper, contamination refers to an unintentional… …Formation of axenic cultures is difficult and limited by contamination… …of these hybrids, including (1) contamination identification… …as individual factors in the D-­‐optimization design, discussed in… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Caesar, L. K. (2015). Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria. (Masters Thesis). Clemson University. Retrieved from https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/2080

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Caesar, Lindsay Kate. “Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria.” 2015. Masters Thesis, Clemson University. Accessed September 17, 2019. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/2080.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Caesar, Lindsay Kate. “Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria.” 2015. Web. 17 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Caesar LK. Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Clemson University; 2015. [cited 2019 Sep 17]. Available from: https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/2080.

Council of Science Editors:

Caesar LK. Micropropagation of Hybrid Hellebores and their Endogenous Bacteria. [Masters Thesis]. Clemson University; 2015. Available from: https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/2080

.