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You searched for subject:(Crittenden County). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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University of Arkansas

1. Ownbey, Samuel Morris. 'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership.

Degree: MA, 2020, University of Arkansas

This thesis examines the systematic dispossession of African American property by white planters in the Arkansas Delta. It argues white planters, backed by a legal system favorable to their interests, expropriated the black land in the once flourishing community of Edmondson, Arkansas. Founded in 1902 by African American business and political leaders, the Edmondson Home and Improvement Company purchased farmland and town lots and began to sell or rent the land to African Americans coming to the area. Located in Crittenden County, Edmondson represented black defiance in the face of Jim Crow laws and white supremacy. The town consisted of black-owned businesses financially supported by the productive cotton-growing soil that surrounded the town. However, the Great Depression lowered the price of cotton, and the town fell into decline. By the mid-1930s, New Deal programs, particularly the Agricultural Adjustment Agency, revitalized the cotton industry, making the land in Edmondson coveted by the dominant white planters. During this time, a white man named Weaver acquired a town lot through an African American agent working on his behalf. The arrival of the first white landowner in Edmondson set in motion a conspiracy to take the land from African Americans and place it under white planter control. By 1941, Weaver had acquired nearly 600 town lots and was collecting rent from the original owners. Left economically devastated and under the control of white planters, the black people of Edmondson had no resources to contest the loss of their land. When the Southern Tenant Farmers Union arrived in Edmondson in 1936, it used its connections to fund a civil suit against Weaver in which they alleged that Weaver’s acquisition was part of a conspiracy to wipe out the last independent black community in Crittenden County. The people claimed that the sheriff and tax collector of Crittenden County had declared their land delinquent for failure to pay a tax that he had not properly levied against them. Having declared the lands delinquent, the sheriff then sold the lands to the State of Arkansas. The state then conveyed the land to Weaver, leaving him virtually the sole proprietor of Edmondson. The civil suit lasted from 1941 to 1949 when a Crittenden County judge dismissed the suit without a trial, and the people of Edmondson never reclaimed their property. Advisors/Committee Members: Michael Pierce, Caree Banton, Patrick Williams.

Subjects/Keywords: African Americans; Agriculture; Arkansas delta; Crittenden County; Edmondson; Landownership; African American Studies; American Politics; Cultural History; Race and Ethnicity; Rural Sociology; United States History

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Ownbey, S. M. (2020). 'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership. (Masters Thesis). University of Arkansas. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/3702

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Ownbey, Samuel Morris. “'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership.” 2020. Masters Thesis, University of Arkansas. Accessed November 29, 2020. https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/3702.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Ownbey, Samuel Morris. “'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership.” 2020. Web. 29 Nov 2020.

Vancouver:

Ownbey SM. 'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Arkansas; 2020. [cited 2020 Nov 29]. Available from: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/3702.

Council of Science Editors:

Ownbey SM. 'The once peaceful little town:' Edmondson, Arkansas, and the Decline of African American Landownership. [Masters Thesis]. University of Arkansas; 2020. Available from: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/3702


University of Arkansas

2. Jones, Krista Michelle. "It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation.

Degree: MA, 2012, University of Arkansas

Despite the vast scholarship that exists discussing why Democrats sought restrictive suffrage laws, little attention has been given by historians to examine how concern over local government drove disfranchisement measures. This study examines how the authors of disfranchisement laws were influenced by what was happening in Crittenden County where African Americans, because of their numerical majority, wielded enough political power to determine election outcomes. In the years following the Civil War, African Americans established strong communities, educated themselves, secured independent institutions, and most importantly became active in politics. Because of their numerical majority, Crittenden's African Americans were elected to county offices and maintained significant political power after Reconstruction had ended. "Fusion" agreements in the 1880s ameliorated deep-seated racial tensions until pressure brought on by a sharp increase in the counties African American population and by state-wide agrarian discontent. Economic hardships prompted Arkansas farmers to confront their issues politically by embracing the rhetoric of third-party alliances. By 1888, the Union Labor Party, a third-party Republican alliance, challenged Democrat's control over state politics. Fearing what a Union Labor Party victory would mean for their political party and evidently weary of fusion; Crittenden County's white Democrats expelled its African American officials and other locally prominent African American citizens before the fall 1888 elections. Although, Democrats were successful in taking control of Crittenden's local government, their use of fraud, intimidation, and violence did not translate into political dominance. Crittenden County's African Americans continued to vote and control county elections. Circumstances such as those in Crittenden County forced Democrats to explore new ways to control the political power of the county's black majority through statutory disfranchisement. Advisors/Committee Members: Jeannie Whayne, Patrick Williams, Michael Pierce.

Subjects/Keywords: Social sciences; African american; Arkansas; Crittenden County; Disfranchisement; Politics; Violence; African American Studies; American Politics; Other History; Political History; United States History

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Jones, K. M. (2012). "It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation. (Masters Thesis). University of Arkansas. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/466

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Jones, Krista Michelle. “"It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation.” 2012. Masters Thesis, University of Arkansas. Accessed November 29, 2020. https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/466.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Jones, Krista Michelle. “"It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation.” 2012. Web. 29 Nov 2020.

Vancouver:

Jones KM. "It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Arkansas; 2012. [cited 2020 Nov 29]. Available from: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/466.

Council of Science Editors:

Jones KM. "It Was Awful, But It Was Politics": Crittenden County and the Demise of African American Political Participation. [Masters Thesis]. University of Arkansas; 2012. Available from: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/466

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