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University of Texas – Austin

1. -5293-9747. Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide.

Degree: PhD, Civil Engineering, 2019, University of Texas – Austin

Novel engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continue to be synthesized and adopted for commercial and industrial applications. Currently, the classes of ENMs utilized most in consumer products are metal oxides, metals, and carbonaceous materials. An emerging subset of metal oxide ENMs with potential in many applications are doped metal oxides, which are binary metal oxides (MO [subscript x] ) with some amount of another element, metal or non metal, inserted into the crystal lattice. This research focused on the environmental fate and transport of a major doped metal oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), that is currently widely produced for applications in electronics. Specifically, this dissertation investigated the particle stability, solubility, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ITO nanoparticles in aqueous systems. The stability of ITO particles in electrolyte solutions and the effect of Sn level was investigated in a series of homoaggregation studies. In order to better compare colloidal stability, a novel method, called the TAA-logistic method, for estimating the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) from dynamic light scattering data was developed and tested with experimental and literature data. Using the new method, particle aggregation kinetics were compared for a range of solution conditions including pH, electrolyte valency, ionic strength, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Aggregation kinetics were determined for a set of synthesized particles coated with PAA-PEO polymer and for a set of bare, commercially-obtained particles. Aggregation experiments indicated inclusion of Sn in In₂O₃ decreased the aqueous stability of the nanoparticle, largely due to decreases in the magnitude of surface charge. However, the surface charge and aqueous stability did not always trend linearly with Sn content, indicating other factors, such as the distribution of Sn within the ITO crystal, were also important. Lastly, Suwannee River aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) significantly increased the aqueous stability of ITO nanoparticles through charge reversal and electrostatic stabilization. Dissolution of ITO in dilute, inert electrolyte was studied in batch and flowthrough experiments. Slow dissolution kinetics were shown in both experimental con- figurations. Sn was not appreciably leached from ITO at either pH = 4 or pH = 6. Inclusion of Sn appeared to reduce In solubility relative to In₂O₃ at pH = 6 but increased In leaching at pH = 4. The discrepancy between dissolution behavior at the two pH values relative to the In₂O₃ end-member indicated more complex solubility than explained by simple ideal solid solution aqueous solution behavior. Lastly, the electronic band structure of ITO was determined for multiple levels of Sn using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Inclusion of tin resulted in an increase of the optical band gap and a shift of the conduction band minimum, Fermi level, and valence band maximum to more oxidizing potentials relative to… Advisors/Committee Members: Katz, Lynn Ellen (advisor), Saleh, Navid B (committee member), Kirisits, Mary Jo (committee member), Milliron, Delia J (committee member), Lawler, Desmond F (committee member), Reible, Danny D (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Indium tin oxide; Environmental fate and transport; Homoaggregation; Critical coagulation concentration; Doped metal oxide

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APA (6th Edition):

-5293-9747. (2019). Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Texas – Austin. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.26153/tsw/1070

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Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

-5293-9747. “Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas – Austin. Accessed April 03, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.26153/tsw/1070.

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MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

-5293-9747. “Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide.” 2019. Web. 03 Apr 2020.

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Vancouver:

-5293-9747. Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Texas – Austin; 2019. [cited 2020 Apr 03]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.26153/tsw/1070.

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Council of Science Editors:

-5293-9747. Effect of dopant level on environmental behavior of doped nanoparticles : a case study of indium tin oxide. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Texas – Austin; 2019. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.26153/tsw/1070

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Author name may be incomplete

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