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You searched for subject:(Cotton Gin Trash). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Texas A&M University

1. Aquino, Froilan Ludana. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.

Degree: 2009, Texas A&M University

Cotton-gin trash (CGT) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures and reaction times using an externally-heated batch reactor. The average yields of output products (solid/char, liquid/bio-oil, and gaseous) were determined. The heating value (HV) of CGT was measured to be around 15-16 MJ kg- 1 (6500-7000 Btu lb-1). In the first set of tests, CGT was pyrolyzed at 600, 700, and 800?C and at 30, 45, and 60 min reaction period. The maximum char yield of 40% by weight (wt.%) was determined at 600?C and 30 min settings, however, the HV of char was low and almost similar to the HV of CGT. A maximum gas yield of 40 wt.% was measured at 800?C and 60 min and the highest liquid yield of 30 wt.% was determined at 800?C and 30 min. In the modified pyrolysis test, the effects of temperature (500, 600, 700, and 800?C) on the product yield and other properties were investigated. The experiment was performed using the same reactor purged with nitrogen at a rate of 1000 cm3 min-1. Gas yield increased as temperature was increased while the effect was opposite on char yield. The maximum char yield of 38 wt.% was determined at 500?C and 30 min. The char had the largest fraction in the energy output (70-83%) followed by gas (10-20%) and bio-oil (7- 9%). Maximum gas yield of 35 wt.% was determined at 800?C. The average yield of CO, H2 and total hydrocarbons (THC) generally increased with increased temperature but CO2 production decreased. Methane, ethane, and propane dominated the THC. The bio-oil yield at 600?C was the highest at about 30 wt.% among the temperature settings. The HV of bio-oil was low (2-5 MJ kg-1) due to minimal non-HC compounds and high moisture content (MC). A simple energy balance of the process was performed. The process was considered energy intensive due to the high amount of energy input (6100 kJ) while generating a maximum energy output of only 10%. After disregarding the energy used for preparation and pyrolysis, the energy losses ranged from 30-46% while the energy of the output represent between 55-70% of the input energy from CGT. Advisors/Committee Members: Capareda, Sergio C. (advisor), Caton, Jerald A. (committee member), Parnell, Calvin Jr. B. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: pyrolysis; cotton-gin trash; bio-oil; char; syn-gas; tar

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Aquino, F. L. (2009). Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash. (Thesis). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2425

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Aquino, Froilan Ludana. “Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.” 2009. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Accessed October 20, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2425.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Aquino, Froilan Ludana. “Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.” 2009. Web. 20 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Aquino FL. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash. [Internet] [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2009. [cited 2019 Oct 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2425.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Aquino FL. Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash. [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2425

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Texas A&M University

2. Saucier, David Shane. Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas.

Degree: 2013, Texas A&M University

Cotton gins have a readily available supply of biomass that is a by-product of cotton ginning. A 40 bph - cotton gin processing stripped cotton must manage 2,600 to 20,000 tonnes of cotton gin trash (CGT) annually. CGT contains approximately 16.3 MJ/kg (7000 Btu/lb.). CGT has the potential to serve as a renewable energy source. Gasification of biomasses such as CGT can offer processing facilities the opportunity to transform their waste biomass into electricity. The gasification of CGT yields 80% synthesis gas (syngas) and 20% biochar. The concentration of biochar in the syngas needs to be reduced prior to the direct fueling of an internal combustion engine driving a generator for electricity production. It was estimated that direct fueling of an internal combustion engine with syngas to drive the generator to produce electricity would cost 1M per megawatt (MW). In contrast, a 1MW system that consists of a boiler and steam turbine would cost 2M/MW. The current provisional patent for the TAMU fluidized bed gasification (FBG) unit uses a 1D2D and 1D3D cyclone for the removal of biochar. A cyclone test stand was designed and constructed to evaluate cyclone capture efficiencies of biochar. A statistical experiment design was used to evaluate cyclone performances for varying concentrations of biochar. A total of 24 tests for the 1D2D and 36 tests for the 1D3D cyclone were conducted at ambient conditions. Average collection efficiency for the 1D2D cyclone was 96.6% and 96.9% for the 1D3D cyclone. An analysis on the cyclone?s pressure drop was performed to compare the change in pressure drop from air only passing through the cyclone and when the cyclones are loaded with biochar. The average change in pressure drop for the 1D2D cyclone was a decrease of 74%, and the average change in pressure drop for the 1D3D cyclone was a decrease of 36%. An economic feasibility study was conducted to determine the price per kWh to produce electricity for a CGT fueled internal combustion engine power plant (ICPP) and a boiler and steam turbine power plant (SPP). The simulated cotton gin is a 40 bph rated facility operating for 2,000 hours a season (200% utilization) processing stripped cotton that yields approximately 180 kg/bale (400 lbs/bale) of CGT. Revenues consist of the electricity and natural gas expenses incurred during the ginning season, along with the extra electricity produced and sold back to the utility company at the whole price. Loan payments and operating costs include labor, maintenance, taxes, and insurance. Labor costs, the selling price of electricity and biochar are varied in the economic model. The ICPP has a NPV of 1,480,000, and the SPP has a NPV of -160,000, under the base assumptions. The sensitivity analysis resulted in the selling price of electricity as having the largest change on the NPV for both of the power plants. The average predicted purchase price of electricity is 0.10/kWh for the twenty year simulation. The average price to produce electricity, with no source of revenue generation for the ICPP… Advisors/Committee Members: Parnell, Jr., Calvin B (advisor), Capareda, Sergio C (committee member), Lacewell, Ronald D (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: cyclones; biochar; fluidized bed gasification; cotton gin trash; syngas

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Saucier, D. S. (2013). Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas. (Thesis). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/150963

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Saucier, David Shane. “Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas.” 2013. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Accessed October 20, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/150963.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Saucier, David Shane. “Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas.” 2013. Web. 20 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Saucier DS. Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas. [Internet] [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2013. [cited 2019 Oct 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/150963.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Saucier DS. Cyclone Performance for Reducing Biochar Concentrations in Syngas. [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/150963

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Texas A&M University

3. Luehrs, Daniel R. Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams.

Degree: 2014, Texas A&M University

The goal of this research is to use the energy in cotton gin trash (CGT) to fuel an internal combustion engine (ICE) driving a generator to produce electricity for a cotton gin. CGT is a fuel that has char that melts at low temperatures. This characteristic is referred to as char having a low eutectic point. Biomasses with low eutectic points cannot be used in a combustion process because the char will result in slagging and fouling. We have used fluidized bed gasification (FBG) to control the reaction temperatures and capture the energy in the biomass. CGT has an approximant 16,300 kJ/kg (7,000 Btu/lb) of energy. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) can have an energy content as high as 7,450 kJ/m^(3) (200 Btu/dscf) and can be fed directly into an internal combustion engine (ICE) which can drive a generator to produce electricity. The syngas conveys the char from the bed to the gas cleanup system consisting of specially designed cyclones. The cyclones were used to reduce particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the syngas prior to delivery to the ICE. Cyclones are capable of reducing the concentrations of particulate matter from syngas streams. The temperatures of the syngas leaving the gasification bed ranges from 371 to 760 ?C (700 to 1400 ?F). These high temperatures impact the cyclone inlet velocities as a consequence of the reduced gas densities. Changes in gas densities will influence the cyclone design. It was hypothesized that changes in cyclone performances as a consequence lower gas densities could be approximated by increasing the cyclones inlet velocities of air at standard temperature and pressure (STP) to correspond to the anticipated cyclone?s inlet velocities of syngas at the higher temperatures. Multiple tests of cyclone performances in simulated high temperature gas streams were conducted using bio-char. Preliminary cyclone testing results indicate that the location of the vortex inverter in the cyclone relative to the natural length can significantly impact the cyclone performance and design. Tests were conducted at inlet velocities of 16.3, 30.5, and 45.7 m/s (3,000, 6,000 and 9,000 fpm). Increasing inlet velocities resulted in increasing the cyclone?s natural length. This study was limited to testing cyclone performances at ambient temperatures and simulating high temperature airflow rates and velocities for safety purposes. Natural lengths were used to help determine the optimum location of the vortex inverter; resulting in a new design process for cyclones operating with high temperature gases. Advisors/Committee Members: Parnell, Calvin B (advisor), Capareda, Sergio C (committee member), Alvarado, Jorge L (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Cyclone; Cotton Gin Trash; Fluidized Bed Gasification; Bio-char; High Temperature

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Luehrs, D. R. (2014). Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams. (Thesis). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153308

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Luehrs, Daniel R. “Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams.” 2014. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Accessed October 20, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153308.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Luehrs, Daniel R. “Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams.” 2014. Web. 20 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Luehrs DR. Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams. [Internet] [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2014. [cited 2019 Oct 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153308.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Luehrs DR. Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams. [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/153308

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.