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Degree: MASc (Master of Applied Science/Ma??trise ??s sciences appliqu??es), Aeronautical Engineering/G??nie a??ronautique, 2016, Royal Military College of Canada

Low-velocity impact on composite sandwich structure is a concern in the aerospace community, which has led to academic and industry investigation of failure modes, strength reduction and damage tolerance of structures with special attention to barely visible impact damage. Blunt impact as a result of tool drops or ground handling accidents may cause damage to the facesheet and core compromising the integrity of the panel while leaving minimal surface indication. This research characterizes damage as a result of out-of-plane impact of selected non-standard sandwich panels. Panels consist of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy facesheets, and an aluminum alloy honeycomb core; thicknesses of facesheets, core, and density of core were varied for the panels. A fixture was designed to allow for a drop-weight impact tower to contact panels perpendicular to their upper surface. Following impact, dents were measured via micrometer and laser topography. Underlying panel damage was characterized with through-transmission ultrasound, radiography and an in-house damage detection method named the C-scan tap test which detected changes in local stiffness similar to the computer-aided tap test. Non-destructive methods were followed by a sectioned characterization of the damage through the impact zones. Four studies were carried out, looking at how damage is affected by impactor diameter, impact on a repaired panel, the effectiveness of the C-scan tap test, and the presence of longterm dent relaxation. Hemispherical impactor diameter was shown to influence damage area and failure mode for a given impact energy level. Impact on a repaired panel led to significant hidden damage underneath the repair patch. The C-scan tap test performed well when compared to ultrasound and radiography. Longterm dent relaxation was minimal for the panel studied, less than 30 ??m over a week-long period.

L???impact ?? faible vitesse sur une structure fabriqu??e en sandwich composite est une pr??occupation dans la communaut?? a??rospatiale et le sujet d???enqu??te universitaire et industrielle sur les modes de d??faillance, la r??duction de la force et de la tol??rance aux dommages des structures avec une attention particuli??re aux dommages d???impact ?? peine visible. Un impact contondant r??sultant d???outils ??chapp??s ou d???accidents de manutention au sol peut causer des dommages au rev??tement et au noyau compromettant l???int??grit?? du panneau tout en laissant de minuscules traces sur la surface. Cette recherche caract??rise les dommages d???impact perpendiculaire sur des panneaux sandwich non-standards. Les panneaux sont compos??s d???un rev??tement d???epoxy renforc?? de fibres de carbone, et un ??me nid d???abeilles en alliage d???aluminium; l?????paisseur du rev??tement, de l'??me, et la masse volumique de l'??me ont ??t?? vari??es pour les panneaux. Un gabarit a ??t?? con??u pour permettre aux masses d???un tour d???impact de frapper les panneaux perpendiculairement ?? leur surface sup??rieure. Apr??s le choc, les bosses ont ??t??…

Advisors/Committee Members: Royal Military College of Canada / Coll??ge militaire royal du Canada, Wowk, Diane, Marsden, Catharine.

Subjects/Keywords: low-velocity impact; impact ?? faible vitesse; composites; composites; sandwich panels; panneaux sandwich; non-standard panels; panneaux non-standards; repaired panel; panneau r??par??; tap test; test marteau; CATT; CATT; drop-weight impact; essai d'impact par chute; characterization; caract??risation; CFRP; PRFC; honeycomb; nid d???abeilles; impactor diameter; diam??tre de l???impacteur; failure mode; modes de d??faillance; BVID; BVID; computer-aided tap test; test marteau assist??e par ordinateur; dent relaxation; d??tente ?? long terme

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Prior, S. (2016). CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDWICH PANELS SUBJECT TO LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT. (Masters Thesis). Royal Military College of Canada. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Prior, Stephen. “CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDWICH PANELS SUBJECT TO LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT.” 2016. Masters Thesis, Royal Military College of Canada. Accessed September 19, 2020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):



Prior S. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDWICH PANELS SUBJECT TO LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Royal Military College of Canada; 2016. [cited 2020 Sep 19]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Prior S. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDWICH PANELS SUBJECT TO LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT. [Masters Thesis]. Royal Military College of Canada; 2016. Available from: