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1. Xu, Zhi Jin. An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention.
Degree: PhD, 2013, Temple University
Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone and skeletal system which weakens bone structure and results in fractures. The disease has caused a heavy economic burden in the U.S., especially among Americans over the age of 50. According to The Surgeon General's report on bone health in 2004 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service (USDHHS), 2004), an estimated 10 million Americans over age 50 have osteoporosis, and another 34 million have osteopenia and are at risk of osteoporosis. The projected cost directly associated with osteoporosis is 34.0 billion in 2005 and will rise to more than 41.4 billion in 2025 (Vanness & Tosteson, 2005). Osteoporosis also results in serious and often devastating health problems for affected individuals (Riggs & Melton, 1995) because of the fractures it causes. Riggs and Melton (1995) estimated that each year 1.5 million people suffer an osteoporosis-related fracture. Unlike genetic risk factors that can be nearly impossible to modify, living on a calcium-rich diet is a lifestyle choice. Effective intervention programs can be useful tools to educate people to adopt a calcium-rich diet. Studies have shown that a calcium-rich diet can increase bone mineral density and intervention programs can facilitate the process of the lifestyle change (Wong, Lau, E.M., Lau, W.W., & Lynn, 2004; Lv & Brown, 2011). However, effective intervention programs against osteoporosis are limited for minorities, and specifically, for elderly Chinese women. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Chinese women is high but the knowledge level is low (Babbar et al., 2006; Lau, Woo, Leung, Swaminathan, & Leung, 1992), which provides an opportunity for intervention. A community-based intervention program was designed based on the modified health belief model (HBM). Its content was specifically tailored to the cultural background and the characteristics of the Chinese women living in the Greater Philadelphia area, based on the findings from previous studies. The intervention program was implemented and its effectiveness was evaluated in a 2-group quasi-experimental study. The study recruited eight (8) Chinese community organizations and assigned them to receive either the intervention program or the control program according to the timing of their agreement to participate and the balance of total participants recruited for each study group at the time. A total of 102 Chinese women were enrolled from the three (3) organizations that were assigned to the Intervention Group and 90 from the five (5) organizations that were assigned to the Control Group. Participants in the Intervention Group received a 30-mintue education session delivered in Chinese (Mandarin). The education focused on the Health Belief Model constructs in the context of osteoporosis intervention. It provided information about osteoporosis, including the functions of the bones, prevalence and risk factors. It highlighted participants' susceptibility to osteoporosis, the consequences and severity of the disease, and targeted messages to increase…Advisors/Committee Members: Ma, Grace, Segal, Jay, DuCette, Joseph P., Fang, Carolyn.
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APA (6th Edition):
Xu, Z. J. (2013). An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention. (Doctoral Dissertation). Temple University. Retrieved from http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,214815
Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):
Xu, Zhi Jin. “An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University. Accessed June 18, 2019. http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,214815.
MLA Handbook (7th Edition):
Xu, Zhi Jin. “An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention.” 2013. Web. 18 Jun 2019.
Xu ZJ. An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Temple University; 2013. [cited 2019 Jun 18]. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,214815.
Council of Science Editors:
Xu ZJ. An Osteoporosis Intervention Program for Chinese Women – Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Intention. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Temple University; 2013. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,214815