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You searched for subject:(CO2e). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Universidade do Minho

1. Moreira, André Vilaça. Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems .

Degree: 2018, Universidade do Minho

The expansion and quality increase of road infrastructures in developed countries during the last decades is shifting the attention towards their preservation rather than to new construction. Pavements are the most costly road asset. Therefore, their preservation management optimization is important in order to meet quality and safety demands within available budgets that are becoming increasingly limited. More recently, environmental aspects related to the pavements life-cycle have been raising concerns that must be addressed. The present thesis describes the development of an optimization methodology that intends to be a decision support tool for road administrations. In fact, this work emerged within the scope of a highway administration related project, so it has a character of applied research. The developed methodology is capable of suggesting pavement preservation plans at the network level for a certain time period. It considers aspects related to pavement quality, administration costs, as well as user and environmental costs. Genetic algorithms are employed to optimize problems with two or three con icting objectives, either simultaneously or at distinct phases in order to deal with pairs of objectives at di erent levels. Data selection and ltering and the development of Markov based prediction models are also included in the thesis. The methodology is exible, so that other prediction models with better adjustment to the problem to be solved can be implemented. Similarly, preservation operations and the respective costs and e ects on the pavement are also adjustable. The use of European-level standardized performance indicators and the consideration of user costs and costs related to CO2 emissions in a multi-objective optimization are the main di erences of this methodology to existent ones. The methodology is applied in two distinct case studies that complement each other, allowing to demonstrate the features and adaptability of the methodology. The rst case study relies on historical data from an American database, while the second one is based on data provided by a Portuguese highway administration. In the rst case, preservation plans for a group of geographically separated pavement sections are de ned, regarding administration costs and pavement quality at rst, and user and environmental costs at last. The second case study is focused on a pavement segment that is divided in several dozens of adjacent sections. This allows the suggestion of preservation plans indicating the relative segment area that should be a ected with a speci c treatment in a speci c year, in order to meet quality constraints while optimizing administration costs and pavement quality for the analysis period. Advisors/Committee Members: Oliveira, Joel R. M (advisor), Tien Fang Fwa (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Road pavement management systems; performance indicators; COST 354; prediction models; Markov chains; multi-objective optimization; genetic algorithms; two-stage optimization; sustainability; costs of CO2e emissions; Sistemas de gestão de pavimentos rodoviários; indicadores de desempenho; COST 354; modelos de previsão; cadeias de Markov; otimização multi-objetivo; algoritmos genéticos; otimização multi-nível; sustentabilidade; custos de emissões de CO2e

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Moreira, A. V. (2018). Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems . (Doctoral Dissertation). Universidade do Minho. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1822/55852

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Moreira, André Vilaça. “Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems .” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, Universidade do Minho. Accessed August 24, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1822/55852.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Moreira, André Vilaça. “Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems .” 2018. Web. 24 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Moreira AV. Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Universidade do Minho; 2018. [cited 2019 Aug 24]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1822/55852.

Council of Science Editors:

Moreira AV. Development of an optimization methodology for pavement management systems . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Universidade do Minho; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1822/55852


Mid Sweden University

2. Nord, Iza. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg.

Degree: Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering, 2018, Mid Sweden University

Products, throughout their life cycle from production to waste management, create emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This leads to environmental impacts on the climate (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2016). The consumed products from households are increasing (World Wildlife Fund, 2008) and so is the waste generated from them (Avfall Sverige, n.d.). A more sustainable development generating from circular economy should be focused on to increases the reuse of products and by so reduce the amount of waste generated (Göteborgs Stad, n.d.a.) This study have examined if the use of Free Shops can help the city of Gothenburg to reach higher up the waste management hierarchy towards reuse and prevention, and if carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) can be avoided by using Free Shops.    Two Free Shops with the purpose to increase reuse in Gothenburg have been studied and their effect on GHG emissions, presented as CO2e, have been analysed. A Life Cycle Inventory Study (LCI) has been conducted on all, but two, different materials entering the Free Shops for four weeks, including the production, waste management, transportation and storage. The result of the study shows that a mean of 10 ton CO2e per Free Shop per year can be avoided when reusing at a Free Shop instead of buying new products. This equals leaving a low energy lamp on for approximately 590 years (World Wildlife Fund, 2009) based on a low energy lamp using 0,007 kWh (Eon, 2007). To examine if the Free Shops can reduce the amount of waste disposed of by households in Gothenburg the material entering the Free Shops was weight and analysed to estimate how it corresponded to the amount of waste disposed of. The result shows that the material entering a Free Shop only corresponds to 0.0025 percent of the household waste disposed of in the city. This indicates that Free Shops by themselves will not solve the problem with increasing amounts of waste and emissions from increasing production. However, they can help in a small scale.  

20180625

Subjects/Keywords: carbon dioxide equivalents; CO2e; CO2eq; reuse; waste management; LCA; Life Cycle Assessment; LCI; Life Cycle; Inventory Study; life cycle; production; consumer; waste; Free Shops; Free Shop Majorna; Free Shop Högsbo; avfall; avfallsstatistik; Gratisbutik; Environmental Sciences; Miljövetenskap

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Nord, I. (2018). Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg. (Thesis). Mid Sweden University. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33920

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Nord, Iza. “Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg.” 2018. Thesis, Mid Sweden University. Accessed August 24, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33920.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Nord, Iza. “Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg.” 2018. Web. 24 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Nord I. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg. [Internet] [Thesis]. Mid Sweden University; 2018. [cited 2019 Aug 24]. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33920.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Nord I. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Use of Free Shops : A Case Study of Two Free Shops in Gothenburg. [Thesis]. Mid Sweden University; 2018. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33920

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

3. Lozano, Adolfo. Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment.

Degree: Mechanical Engineering, 2011, University of Texas – Austin

This study centered on a novel thermoelectric generator (TEG) integrated into the built environment. Designed by Watts Thermoelectric LLC, the TEG is essentially a novel assembly of thermoelectric modules whose required temperature differential is supplied by hot and cold streams of water flowing through the TEG. Per its recommended operating conditions, the TEG nominally generates 83 Watts of electrical power. In its default configuration in the built environment, solar-thermal energy serves as the TEG’s hot stream source and geothermal energy serves as its cold stream source. Two systems-level, thermodynamic analyses were performed, which were based on the TEG’s upcoming characterization testing, scheduled to occur later in 2011 in Detroit, Michigan. The first analysis considered the TEG coupled with a solar collector system. A numerical model of the coupled system was constructed in order to estimate the system’s annual energetic performance. It was determined numerically that over the course of a sample year, the solar collector system could deliver 39.73 megawatt-hours (MWh) of thermal energy to the TEG. The TEG converted that thermal energy into a net of 266.5 kilowatt-hours of electricity in that year. The second analysis focused on the TEG itself during operation with the purpose of providing a preliminary thermodynamic characterization of the TEG. Using experimental data, this analysis found the TEG’s operating efficiency to be 1.72%. Next, the annual emissions that would be avoided by implementing the zero-emission TEG were considered. The emission factor of Michigan’s electric grid, RFCM, was calculated to be 0.830 tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per MWh, and with the TEG’s annual energy output, it was concluded that 0.221 tons CO2e would be avoided each year with the TEG. It is important to note that the TEG can be linearly scaled up by including additional modules. Thus, these benefits can be multiplied through the incorporation of more TEG units. Finally, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the TEG integrated into the built environment with the solar-thermal hot source and passive ground-based cold source was considered. The LCOE of the system was estimated to be approximately $8,404/MWh, which is substantially greater than current generation technologies. Note that this calculation was based on one particular configuration with a particular and narrow set of assumptions, and is not intended to be a general conclusion about TEG systems overall. It was concluded that while solar-thermal energy systems can sustain the TEG, they are capital-intensive and therefore not economically suitable for the TEG given the assumptions of this analysis. In the end, because of the large costs associated with the solar-thermal system, waste heat recovery is proposed as a potentially more cost-effective provider of the TEG’s hot stream source. Advisors/Committee Members: Webber, Michael E., 1971- (advisor), Schmidt, Philip S. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Thermoelectric generator; TEG; Novel thermoelectric generator; Thermoelectrics; Thermoelectric effect; Thermoelectric modules; Thermoelectric device; Patent application; Hot stream source; Cold stream source; EIA; EERE; Systems-level analysis; Energy balance; Control volume analysis; Thermodynamic analysis; Insolation data; Insolation incident on a tilted collector; Insolation incident on a panel; Incident insolation; Extraterrestrial insolation; NREL; Ambient temperature data; NOAA; Renewable energy sources; Energy generation technology; Electricity generation technology; Thermal energy; Coupled system; Emissions; Greenhouse gas; GHG; Emissions analysis; Zero-emission; Emissions avoided; Emission factor; EF; Reliability First Corporation; RFC; Built environment; Integrated into the built environment; Solar-thermal energy; Solar collector system; Photovoltaic thermal; PVT panel; Thermal storage tank; Geothermal energy; Geothermal heat pump; GHP; Ground source heat pump; GSHP; Numerical analysis; Numerical model; MATLAB; Finite-difference; Euler explicit; Electric grid; Annual energetic performance; Annual electricity generation; Operating efficiency; System efficiency; Thermodynamic characterization; Economic analysis; Levelized cost of energy; LCOE; Waste heat recovery; Carbon dioxide equivalent; CO2e; Capital costs; Installed costs; Operating and maintenance costs

…of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per MWh, and with the TEG’s annual energy… …output, it was concluded that 0.221 tons CO2e would be avoided each year with the TEG. It is… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lozano, A. (2011). Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment. (Thesis). University of Texas – Austin. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2152/ETD-UT-2011-08-4131

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lozano, Adolfo. “Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment.” 2011. Thesis, University of Texas – Austin. Accessed August 24, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/2152/ETD-UT-2011-08-4131.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lozano, Adolfo. “Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment.” 2011. Web. 24 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Lozano A. Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Texas – Austin; 2011. [cited 2019 Aug 24]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2152/ETD-UT-2011-08-4131.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Lozano A. Analysis of a novel thermoelectric generator in the built environment. [Thesis]. University of Texas – Austin; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2152/ETD-UT-2011-08-4131

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.