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You searched for subject:(Australia antigen). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Western Sydney

1. Rodwell, Hayden. The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer.

Degree: 2017, University of Western Sydney

Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest rate of diagnosis of all cancers in Australian males. Whilst also having the third highest mortality rate among cancers in Australian males. Due to its heterogeneous nature and improvements in screening patient’s prostate specific antigen (PSA) early detection cases of low-risk PCa are becoming the larger proportion of cases. Over the course of their treatment around 30% of these patients deemed low-risk will have their PCa progress to a high-risk cancer that will require harsher treatment. Previous studies have noted the Ki-67 marker of proliferation as a method of measuring PCa that have progressed to a proliferative state, these cells are found in higher proportion in high-risk PCa. The other type of cell found in PCa are known as quiescent cells that remain in the G0 state of the cell cycle and are Ki-67 negative. The clinical problem that remains is the molecular mechanism that drives this progression from a quiescent cell type to a proliferative cell type remains unclear. The Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) association factor (PAF15) is 15kDa that has known functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, cell survival, cell cycle regulation and proliferation. Studies have shown that PAF15 expression shows greater expression in cancerous cells compared to normal cells in PCa. This higher level of expression has shown implications with cancer progression and poorer prognosis in highly malignant cancers. Although, the molecular mechanisms that PAF15 may affect in the cell cycle are undetermined in prostate cancer. Therefore, this project aims to explore the role PAF15 expression has on the proportion of cancerous cell to quiescent cells in the G0 phase and thus on cancer proliferation. Furthermore, this project aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of proteins that PAF15 affects that pushes the changes in the proportion of quiescent cells. Using small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection to knockdown PAF15 expression, my study shows that silencing PAF15 expression decreased PCa proliferation which led to an amassing of cells at the G0 stage of the cell cycle. Protein levels of SKP2, PIRH2, C-MYC, PCNA and SPT16 were shown to be reduced by immunoblotting. Whereas, p27 protein levels were increased because of the treatment. Alongside these changes in protein levels Ki-67 and BrdU, markers of proliferation also showed reduced expression. This project has shown that PAF15 may potentially have an important role in the regulation of quiescent cells, which could be key for disease progression and future treatment development. Advisors/Committee Members: Western Sydney University. School of Science and Health (Host institution).

Subjects/Keywords: cancer; Australia; males; proliferating cell nuclear antigen; prostate; Thesis (M.Res.) – Western Sydney University, 2017

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Rodwell, H. (2017). The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer. (Thesis). University of Western Sydney. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1959.7/uws:45994

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Rodwell, Hayden. “The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer.” 2017. Thesis, University of Western Sydney. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.7/uws:45994.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Rodwell, Hayden. “The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer.” 2017. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Rodwell H. The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Western Sydney; 2017. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.7/uws:45994.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Rodwell H. The role of PAF15 in the cell cycle of prostate cancer. [Thesis]. University of Western Sydney; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.7/uws:45994

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


University of Western Australia

2. Lisciandro, Joanne Grace. Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments.

Degree: PhD, 2012, University of Western Australia

[Truncated abstract] Background: The incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases including allergy and autoimmunity has risen dramatically in industrialized countries over the last few decades. Similar trends are now being observed in human populations transiting from traditional to more modern or ‘westernized’ lifestyles; suggesting that a traditional environment and/or lifestyle is protective. Accordingly, there is increasing evidence that environmental exposures in early life, including prenatal life, can affect the course of early immune development and hence risks for the development of immunological disease. Still, relatively little is known about neonatal immune function and the process of early immune development in children born under traditional lifestyle conditions and how this compares to children born in modern environments. Hypotheses: In line with the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, we expected to find evidence of enhanced immuno-regulatory mechanisms in neonates born in traditional compared to modern environmental settings. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the trajectory of early immune development in traditional populations might differ from that reported for westernized populations, and is influenced by relevant in utero exposures such as the microbial experience of the mother during pregnancy. Methods: Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) collected from neonates born under traditional (Papua New Guinea; PNG) and modern living conditions (Australia; AUS) were quantitatively and qualitatively compared for differences in T regulatory (Treg) cells, T-helper (Th) cells and antigen presenting cells (APC). When PNG infants were aged between 1-18 months old they were followed-up once more and innate immune responses to a range of Toll-like (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) ligands were measured using whole blood assays.

Lastly, multivariate linear regression was used to explore associations between a number of prenatal risk factors such as maternal intestinal parasite infections and substance use (beer consumption, tobacco smoking or betel nut chewing) and innate immune responses in the PNG birth cohort. Results: The frequency of Treg cells was found to be higher in CBMC of AUS compared to PNG newborns; however, their suppressive function was qualitatively similar. CD4+ Th cells from PNG newborns proliferated less and at a slower rate in response to an APC-dependent mitogen than AUS counterparts; an effect that was attributed to differences in APC rather than T cell function. Moreover, monocytes from PNG compared to AUS newborns exhibited higher baseline levels of activation and inhibitory markers, produced more cytokine in the ‘resting’ state, processed less antigen and were less or non-responsive to stimulation in vitro. Patterns of innate immune development in PNG infants differed from that described in the literature for infants born in high-income countries, including maintained or rising (rather than declining) IL- 10 responses, and declining or constant (rather than rising) TNF-α responses with increasing…

Subjects/Keywords: Neonatal; Immune function; Australia; Papua New Guinea; Modern environment; T-cell; Antigen presenting cell; Prenatal exposure

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lisciandro, J. G. (2012). Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Western Australia. Retrieved from http://repository.uwa.edu.au:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=33204&local_base=GEN01-INS01

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lisciandro, Joanne Grace. “Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Western Australia. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://repository.uwa.edu.au:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=33204&local_base=GEN01-INS01.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lisciandro, Joanne Grace. “Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments.” 2012. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Lisciandro JG. Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Western Australia; 2012. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://repository.uwa.edu.au:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=33204&local_base=GEN01-INS01.

Council of Science Editors:

Lisciandro JG. Neonatal immune function and early immune development in children born in traditional versus modern environments. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Western Australia; 2012. Available from: http://repository.uwa.edu.au:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=33204&local_base=GEN01-INS01

3. Kate, Fiebo. Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study.

Degree: Department of Pathology, 1989, Erasmus University Medical Center

textabstractThe findings reported in this thesis provide a basis for a strategy for anti-viral treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Theoretically several approaches to the treatment of a viral infection exist. Because there is strong evidence for a direct relation between viral replication and activity of the liver disease, one therapeutic possibility may be to achieve suppression of viral replication and thus amelioriation of disease activity. For this purpose drugs that interfere with both viral RNA transcription and the production of viral proteins can be administered in order to suppress replication of the virus. At present however such drugs are. not available. Moreover the infection will not be cured: instead only the effects will mitigated. Such a drug may suppress both the immune mechanism, by diminishing protein (HBsAg) production, and the toxic effects, by reducing proliferation of the virus. Elimination of the potential of an infected cell to produce a virus is another possibile approach. To accomplish this aim, drugs can be used that eliminate ali infected hepatocytes from the liver. As shown in chapter VI, in chronic hepatitis all hepatocytes appear to be infected by the virus, as demonstrated by the diffuse cell membranebound HBsAg localization, so that such a therapy would imply elimination of all hepatocytes. If this elimination were to occur rapidly, the result would be massive liver cell necrosis and death of the patient A more realistic way to eliminate the potential of infected cells to produce virus would be to cure infection of the hepatocyte. Such a therapy may be achieved by inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. Since viral DNA formation depends on reverse transcription, drugs such as phosphonoformic acid that interfere with reverse transcriptasewould prevent the generation of cccDNA. However preliminary results with this type of drug are not hopeful. A decline in viral replication activity is followed by rapid restoration of this activity after withdrawal of the drug. Finally, another possibility is to cure the chronic infection by creating a situation in which newly formed hepatocytes are protected against reinfection by the virus. In this way, the number of infected hepatocytes will slowly decrease, as a result of regeneration of the liver, and all infected cells will eventually disappear.

Subjects/Keywords: hepatitis B; HBsAg-positive patients; liver tissue; chronic infection; Australia antigen; pathobiology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kate, F. (1989). Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study. (Doctoral Dissertation). Erasmus University Medical Center. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/50943

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kate, Fiebo. “Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study.” 1989. Doctoral Dissertation, Erasmus University Medical Center. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1765/50943.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kate, Fiebo. “Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study.” 1989. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Kate F. Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Erasmus University Medical Center; 1989. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1765/50943.

Council of Science Editors:

Kate F. Hepatitis B : a light microscopical and immunohistochemical study. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Erasmus University Medical Center; 1989. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1765/50943

.