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You searched for subject:(Alternating treatments design). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Duquesne University

1. Noakes, Michaela Ann. Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?.

Degree: EdD, Instructional Technology (EdDIT), 2017, Duquesne University

Traumatic Brain Injury outcomes vary by individual due to age at the onset of injury, the location of the injury, and the degree to which the deficits appear to be pronounced, among other factors. As an acquired injury to the brain, the neurophysiological consequences are not homogenous; they are as varied as the individuals who experience them. Persistent impairment in executive functions of attention, initiation, planning, organizing, and memory are likely to be present in children with moderate to severe TBIs. Issues with sensory and motor skills, language, auditory or visual sensation changes, and variations in emotional behavior may also be present. Germane to this study, motor dysfunction is a common long-term sequelae of TBI that manifests in academic difficulties. Borrowing from the learning disability literature, children with motor dysfunction are likely to have transcription deficits, or deficits related to the fine-motor production of written language. This study aimed to compare the effects of handwriting with an assistive technology accommodation on the writing performance of three middle school students with TBIs and writing difficulties. The study utilized an alternating treatments design (ATD), comparing the effects of handwriting responses to story prompts to the use of speech-to-text AT to record participant responses. Speech-to-text technology, like Dragon Naturally Speaking converts spoken language into a print format on a computer screen with a high degree of accuracy. In theory, because less effort is spent on transcription, there is a reduction in cognitive load, enabling more time to be spent on generation skills, such as idea development, selecting more complex words that might be otherwise difficult to spell, and grammar. Overall, all three participants showed marked improvement with the application of speech-to-text AT. The results indicate a positive pattern for the AT as an accommodation with these children that have had mild-to-moderate TBIs as compared to their written output without the AT accommodation. The findings of this study are robust. Through visual analysis of the results, it is evident that the speech-to-text dictation condition was far superior to the handwriting condition (HW) with an effect size that ranged + 3.4 to + 8.8 across participants indicating a large treatment effect size. Perhaps more impressive, was 100 percent non-overlap of data between the two conditions across participants and dependent variables. The application of speech-to-text AT resulted in significantly improved performance across writing indicators in these students with a history of TBIs. Speech-to-Text AT may prove to be an excellent accommodation for children with TBI and fine motor skill deficits. The conclusions drawn from the results of this study indicate the Speech-to-Text AT was more effective than a handwriting condition for all three participants. By providing this AT, these students each improved in the quality, construction, and duration of their written… Advisors/Committee Members: Ara J. Schmitt, Elizabeth McCallum, Joseph Kush.

Subjects/Keywords: Alternating Treatments Design; Assistive Technology; Motor Dysfunction; Speech-to-Text; Traumatic Brain Injury; Written Expression

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Noakes, M. A. (2017). Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?. (Doctoral Dissertation). Duquesne University. Retrieved from https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/181

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Noakes, Michaela Ann. “Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, Duquesne University. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/181.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Noakes, Michaela Ann. “Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?.” 2017. Web. 23 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Noakes MA. Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Duquesne University; 2017. [cited 2019 Sep 23]. Available from: https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/181.

Council of Science Editors:

Noakes MA. Does Speech-To-Text Assistive Technology Improve the Written Expression of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury?. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Duquesne University; 2017. Available from: https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/181


East Carolina University

2. Scott, Emma. Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior.

Degree: 2013, East Carolina University

Children who exhibit problematic levels of disruptive behavior frequently also present with social skills deficits and poor social relationships. The degree to which children establish and maintain interpersonal relationships is known to predict critical psychological outcomes in adulthood. Thus, social skills training (SST) is a frequently used treatment approach to teach or improve prosocial skills as appropriate replacement behaviors for inappropriate disruptive classroom behavior. However, many skills learned in SST often do not generalize to non-training settings (e.g., classroom) without actively programming for setting generalization. The goal of this study was to evaluate individual generalization procedures implemented by teachers directly in the classroom. The present study used an alternating treatments design to compare social skills training (SST) alone with three teacher-facilitated behavioral strategies to promote generalization. These included: 1) brief direct instruction of social skills with a visual prompt (i.e., positively-stated social skills rules visibly posted in the classroom), 2) verbal prompts, and 3) contingent reinforcement for the demonstration of social skills. Appropriate reinforcers were chosen from results on a preference assessment and teacher interviews.   Four second-grade male students, referred for excessive disruptive behavior and poor social relationships, participated in this study. Students were pulled from their classrooms twice weekly to receive SST throughout the study. Students received each generalization component in a rapidly alternating fashion and treatment conditions were counterbalanced among participants. Following the alternating treatments phase, generalization procedures were removed in a withdrawal phase (while SST was ongoing) and the most effective procedure was then re-implemented to verify that behavior change was a function of the treatment condition. Effectiveness of each treatment was determined by visual analysis and standardized mean difference effect sizes using data from direct observations of classroom disruptive behavior. Pre- and posttest ratings of students' conduct problems and social skills were assessed via teacher ratings. Finally, acceptability of each treatment was evaluated by teachers using the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (IRP-15).  Contingent reinforcement resulted in the largest decrease in disruptive behavior (d = 3.92) for all participants. Verbal prompting was somewhat effective (d = 1.38), but visual prompting (d = 0.25) had limited effectiveness. Additionally, SST alone was ineffective in producing a behavior change that generalized to the classroom (d = 0.04). As a result of the entire treatment package, conduct problems on the SESBI-R decreased slightly and social skills increased slightly on the SSiS. Teachers rated each procedure as acceptable, with contingent reinforcement most acceptable. Limitations include limited external validity and some variability in baseline conditions. This study demonstrates the importance of…

Subjects/Keywords: Psychology; Behavioral sciences; Alternating treatments design; Contingent reinforcement; Disruptive behavior; Generalization; Social skills training; Social skills in children; Social skills – Study and teaching; Behavior disorders in children; Classroom environment

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Scott, E. (2013). Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior. (Thesis). East Carolina University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10342/4340

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Scott, Emma. “Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior.” 2013. Thesis, East Carolina University. Accessed September 23, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/4340.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Scott, Emma. “Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior.” 2013. Web. 23 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Scott E. Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior. [Internet] [Thesis]. East Carolina University; 2013. [cited 2019 Sep 23]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10342/4340.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Scott E. Generalization of Social Skills Training on Disruptive Classroom Behavior. [Thesis]. East Carolina University; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10342/4340

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

3. Coughlin, Cristy. Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System.

Degree: 2012, University of Oregon

The current study sought to add to the literature on applying interdependent group-oriented contingency systems with randomized components to academic performance. This study expanded previous work, which has only examined effects on elementary classrooms and students with disabilities, by implementing a similar intervention within a general education, secondary classroom. Given the restricted time that teachers have to learn and implement interventions, while simultaneously carrying out all their additional responsibilities in the classroom, it is necessary for school psychologists to consider these limitations when recommending interventions. In previous work involving interdependent group-oriented contingencies, the delivery of reinforcement has been relatively immediate. While this is an ideal arrangement, it may be infeasible for middle and high school teachers to ensure reinforcement of academic performance occurs immediately within the class period. This study examined whether the delivery of reinforcement can be delayed within an interdependent group-oriented contingency system and still improve the academic performance of students in the classroom, which will allow the teacher more time for evaluating the quality of student work and, in turn, impact the acceptability of the intervention. One middle school, general education classroom served as the setting for this study. Academic performance data, including in-class work completion and accuracy rates, were collected class-wide and data on social behavior variables were gathered for 3 students exhibiting moderate to high levels of off-task behavior, based on teacher perception. An alternating treatments design was employed with two intervention conditions: one condition included immediate reinforcement and the other involved delivering reinforcement to students a day later. The interdependent group-oriented contingency intervention implemented included procedures for randomly selecting target behaviors, criteria, and reinforcers. Advisors/Committee Members: Anderson, Cindy (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: alternating treatments design; applied behavior analysis; classroom management; delayed reinforcement; group contingency; random selection of reinforcers

…an alternating treatments design to compare effects of independent, dependent, and… …an alternating treatments design, students received rewards randomly selected by the… …and 10 and were in the same classroom. An alternating treatment design was used and… …29 Experimental Design and Procedures… …reversal design to determine effects of the intervention on reading assignment accuracy. Students… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Coughlin, C. (2012). Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System. (Thesis). University of Oregon. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1794/12396

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Coughlin, Cristy. “Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System.” 2012. Thesis, University of Oregon. Accessed September 23, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1794/12396.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Coughlin, Cristy. “Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System.” 2012. Web. 23 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Coughlin C. Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Oregon; 2012. [cited 2019 Sep 23]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1794/12396.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Coughlin C. Relative Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Reinforcement Within an Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency System. [Thesis]. University of Oregon; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1794/12396

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.