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1. Kinuthia, Wanyee. “Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada .

Degree: 2013, University of Ottawa

This thesis draws on David Harvey’s concept of “accumulation by dispossession” and an international political economy (IPE) approach centred on the institutional arrangements and power structures that privilege certain actors and values, in order to critique current capitalist practices of primitive accumulation by the global corporate extractive industry. The thesis examines how accumulation by dispossession by the global extractive industry is facilitated by the “free entry” or “free mining” principle. It does so by focusing on Canada as a leader in the global extractive industry and the spread of this country’s mining laws to other countries – in other words, the transnationalisation of norms in the global extractive industry – so as to maintain a consistent and familiar operating environment for Canadian extractive companies. The transnationalisation of norms is further promoted by key international institutions such as the World Bank, which is also the world’s largest development lender and also plays a key role in shaping the regulations that govern natural resource extraction. The thesis briefly investigates some Canadian examples of resource extraction projects, in order to demonstrate the weaknesses of Canadian mining laws, particularly the lack of protection of landowners’ rights under the free entry system and the subsequent need for “free, prior and informed consent” (FPIC). The thesis also considers some of the challenges to the adoption and implementation of the right to FPIC. These challenges include embedded institutional structures like the free entry mining system, international political economy (IPE) as shaped by international institutions and powerful corporations, as well as concerns regarding ‘local’ power structures or the legitimacy of representatives of communities affected by extractive projects. The thesis concludes that in order for Canada to be truly recognized as a leader in the global extractive industry, it must establish legal norms domestically to ensure that Canadian mining companies and residents can be held accountable when there is evidence of environmental and/or human rights violations associated with the activities of Canadian mining companies abroad. The thesis also concludes that Canada needs to address underlying structural issues such as the free entry mining system and implement FPIC, in order to curb “accumulation by dispossession” by the extractive industry, both domestically and abroad.

Subjects/Keywords: natural resources; raw materials; global extractive industry; mining; accumulation by dispossession; primitive accumulation; resource curse; free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC); consultation; free entry; Bill C-300; Omnibus Bill; self-determination; madaraka; multinational / transnational corporations; land grabs; governance gap; enforcement vacuum; regulatory gap; landlessness; involuntary resettlement; displacement; liberalization; financial markets; capitalism; International Monetary Fund (IMF); Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability (CNCA); Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); Impact and Benefits Agreement (IBA); corporate social responsibility (CSR); international political economy (IPE); Washington Consensus; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP); sustainable development; rare earth; oil; fossil fuels; Whitehorse Mining Initiative (WMI); foreign direct investment (FDI); privatization; Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflict (CCSRC); Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade (SCFAIT); Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD); neoliberal / corporate globalization; Northern Gateway pipeline project; Ring of Fire; centre-periphery; metropolitan-hinterland; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); Gross Domestic Product (GDP); Extractive Industries Review (EIR); Sub-Saharan Africa; war on terror; terrorists; false flag terrorism; Fisheries Act; Navigable Waters Protection Act; primary goods; aid; Third World debt; free trade; modernization; dependency; tariffs; trade barriers; HudBay; home country liability; state; Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX); Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC); spatio-temporal fix; militarism; Sudbury; Atlantic Canada; Crown; neo-colonialism; industrial revolution; imperialism; public policy; democracy; justice; Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); Export Development Corporation (EDC); Kimberley Process; International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM); Mining Association of Canada; National Roundtables on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Canadian Extractive Industry in Developing Countries; equity; austerity measures; Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO); Mining Act reforms; proletariat; aboriginal; Least Developed Countries (LDCs); developing country; comparative advantage; human rights; export-led development; Tiomin; Government of Kenya; Government of Canada; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Bank Group (WBG); World Trade Organization (WTO); United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); Bill C-38; Bill C-45; Assembly of First Nations (AFN); Idle No More; meaningful participation; AFRICOM; titanium; Base Resources Australia; House of Commons; conditionalities; Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs); World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

…effective impunity arises from the “governance gap” – or “enforcement vacuum”15 – which he… …367-385. The “governance gap” or “enforcement vacuum” has also been referred to as the… …accountability mechanism that is required to fill the governance gap (i.e. enforcement vacuum or… …undertake if their efforts are to be seen as legitimate by local communities.”13 The “vacuum” left… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kinuthia, W. (2013). “Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada . (Thesis). University of Ottawa. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30170

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kinuthia, Wanyee. ““Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada .” 2013. Thesis, University of Ottawa. Accessed January 29, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30170.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kinuthia, Wanyee. ““Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada .” 2013. Web. 29 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Kinuthia W. “Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada . [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Ottawa; 2013. [cited 2020 Jan 29]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30170.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Kinuthia W. “Accumulation by Dispossession” by the Global Extractive Industry: The Case of Canada . [Thesis]. University of Ottawa; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30170

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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