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University of Johannesburg

1. Manuel, Grant. Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users.

Degree: 2014, University of Johannesburg

D.Phil. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering)

Load forecasting is a necessary and an important task for both the electrical consumer and electrical supplier. Whilst many studies emphasize the importance of determining the future demand, few papers address both the forecasting algorithm and computational resources needed to offer a turnkey solution to address the load forecasting problem. The major contribution that, this paper identified is a turnkey load forecasting algorithm. A turnkey forecasting solution is defined by a comprehensive solution that incorporates both the algorithm and processing elements needed to execute the algorithm in the most effective and efficient manner. An electrical consumer, namely the operator of a rapid railway system was faced with a problem of having to forecast the notified network demand and energy consumption. The forecast period was expected to be between a very short term window for maintenance reasons and long term for the requirements warranted by the electrical supplier. The problem was addressed by firstly reviewing the most common forms of load forecasting for which there are two types. These are statistically based methods and methods based upon artificial intelligence. The basic principle of a statistical approach is to approximate or define a curve that best defines the relationship between the load and its parameters. Regression and similar day approach methods use the defined correlation of past values in order to forecast the future behaviour. In other words the future load forecast is forecasted by observing the behaviour of the factors that influenced the load behaviour in the past. The underlying factors that influence the final load may be identified by means of a top down drill down approach. In this way both the load factors and influential variables may be identified. This paper makes use of relevance trees to create a structure of load and influential variables. For a regression forecasting model, the behaviour of the load is modelled according to weather and non-weather variables. The load may be stochastic or deterministic, linear or nonlinear. One of the biggest problems with statistical models is the lack of generality. One model may yield more acceptable results over another model simply because of the sensitivity of the model to one load element that defines the model significantly. Regression type forecast models are an example of this where the elements that define the load are broadly divided into weather and non-weather elements. It is important that the correlation curve reflects the true correlation between the load and its elements. The recursive properties of a statistical based techniques (Kalman filter) allows that the relationship be refined. For methods such as neural networks, the relationship between the load elements that define the future load behaviour is learnt by presenting a series of patterns and then a forecast model is derived. Rigorous mathematical equations are replaced with an artificial neural network where the load curve…

Subjects/Keywords: Electric power-plants - Load - Forecasting - Data processing; Neural networks (Computer science); Programmable logic devices

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Manuel, G. (2014). Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users. (Thesis). University of Johannesburg. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10055

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Manuel, Grant. “Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users.” 2014. Thesis, University of Johannesburg. Accessed February 21, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10055.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Manuel, Grant. “Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users.” 2014. Web. 21 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Manuel G. Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Johannesburg; 2014. [cited 2020 Feb 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10055.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Manuel G. Short term load forecasting by means of neural networks and programmable logic devices for new high electrical energy users. [Thesis]. University of Johannesburg; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10055

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Brno University of Technology

2. Koleček, Jan. Programovatelná umělá zátěž .

Degree: 2016, Brno University of Technology

Tato diplomová práce pojednává o návrhu programovatelné umělé zátěže. V práci byla v teoretické části provedena rešerše komerčně dostupných zařízení, na jejímž základě byly diskutovány možnosti vlastního návrhu. Dále byl proveden návrh rezistorové sítě s pomocí počítačového programu, který byl vytvořen speciálně pro tento účel. Praktická část této práce se zabývá realizací zatěžovacího modulu, řídicí desky a vývojem programového vybavení. Celý systém je pak tvořen řídicí deskou a až deseti zatěžovacími moduly. Tyto moduly mají své vstupní svorky plovoucí, což umožňuje jejich libovolné kombinování. Moduly jsou konstruovány pro testování stejnosměrných i střídavých zdrojů.; The diploma thesis deals with the design of a programmable load. As first, the research of available commercial devices was made in the theoretical part. Based on this research, the design possibilities of programmable load were discussed. As next, the design of resistor network was made, using a computer program that was developed for this purpose. Practical part deals with a realization of module of load, control board and software development. Proposed system consists of control board and ten modules. Modules have floating input terminals. This approach facilitate to arbitrary combination of their inputs. Modules are designed to work with DC and AC power supplies. Advisors/Committee Members: Pavlík, Michal (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Programovatelná umělá zátěž; řízení přeběhu; analogově-digitální převodník; digitálně-analogový převodník; FPGA obvod; mikrokontrolér; Programmable load; slew rate controlling; analog to digital converter; digital to analog converter; FPGA; microcontroller

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Koleček, J. (2016). Programovatelná umělá zátěž . (Thesis). Brno University of Technology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11012/59823

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Koleček, Jan. “Programovatelná umělá zátěž .” 2016. Thesis, Brno University of Technology. Accessed February 21, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11012/59823.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Koleček, Jan. “Programovatelná umělá zátěž .” 2016. Web. 21 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Koleček J. Programovatelná umělá zátěž . [Internet] [Thesis]. Brno University of Technology; 2016. [cited 2020 Feb 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11012/59823.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Koleček J. Programovatelná umělá zátěž . [Thesis]. Brno University of Technology; 2016. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11012/59823

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Linnaeus University

3. Klintrot, Oskar. Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC.

Degree: Kalmar Maritime Academy, 2014, Linnaeus University

Detta arbete var beställt av Sjöfartshögskolan i Kalmar. Skolan ville ha en enhet som kunde mäta aktiv-, reaktiv- och skenbar effekt, ström, spänning, frekvens och cosϕ på en generator och som kommunicerade vidare dessa värden till en PLC. Detta för att kunna lastfördela lasten mellan ett antal generatorer i kursen Tillämpad elteknik 15 hp där studenterna bygger en generatorinstallation med tre generatorer. Ett funktionsblock för lastfördelning skulle också programmeras. Prototypen som konstruerades baserades på en Arduino Ethernet och kommunikationen löstes med Modbus TCP/IP över Ethernet. Ett lastfördelningsprogram programmerades i form av ett funktionsblock som studenterna kunde importera till CoDeSys v2.3 och använda i sina installationer. Prototypen kunde läsa av värdena med ungefär samma noggrannhet som ett kommersiellt instrument som använder sig av samma mätteknik som prototypen. Uppdateringsfrekvensen var dock lägre än hos ett kommersiellt instrument. Kommunikationen med PLC:n fungerade utan problem. Då ingen undervisning hölls i arbetets slutskede kunde inte lastfördelningen testas på en fullskalig anläggning. Lastfördelningsprogrammet klarade dock av att hålla rätt frekvens på en ensam generator och fungerade som tänkt när programmet testades i en simulator. Prototypen gav fel mätvärden vid kapacitiv last. Vid jämförelse med en kommersiell tångamperemeter visade sig mätfelet bero på mätmetoden då båda gav liknande resultat. Som referens användes en professionell elkvalitetsanalysator. Alla uppdragsgivarens krav blev uppfyllda och arbetet kommer att kunna användas i undervisningen.

This thesis was ordered by Kalmar Maritime Academy. The request was for a device that could measure active, reactive and apparent power, as well as frequency, voltage, current and cosϕ on a generator. The measured values would be communicated to a PLC for use in a load sharing program between a number of generators in the course Tillämpad elteknik, 15 ECTS. In that course the students constructs a three-generator electric power grid. Included in the request was also to program a load sharing program. The prototype being constructed was based on the Arduino Ethernet, and the communication was enabled by means of the Modbus TCP/IP protocol over Ethernet. A load sharing program was created in the form of a function block which the student could import into the CoDeSys for use in the generator systems. The prototype could measure values with close to the same accuracy as a commercial available instrument that were using the same technique for measuring. The refresh rate was however lower than the commercial available instrument. Communication with the PLC worked without any issues. No full-scale testing could be done since no course was held during the final stages of the thesis, however the load sharing program could keep frequency on a single generator alone and worked in a simulated soft environment. Measuring errors occurred when measuring a capacitive load. When comparing to a commercial available clamp meter, the…

Subjects/Keywords: Arduino; Programmable Logic Controller; PLC; measuring unit; power measurement; Modbus; TCP/IP; Ethernet; CoDeSys; function block; load sharing; power management system; load management system; Arduino; programmerbart styrsystem; PLC; mätinstrument; mätenhet; effektmätning; Modbus; TCP/IP; Ethernet; CoDeSys; funktionsblock; lastfördelning; Engineering and Technology; Teknik och teknologier

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Klintrot, O. (2014). Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC. (Thesis). Linnaeus University. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34236

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Klintrot, Oskar. “Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC.” 2014. Thesis, Linnaeus University. Accessed February 21, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34236.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Klintrot, Oskar. “Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC.” 2014. Web. 21 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Klintrot O. Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC. [Internet] [Thesis]. Linnaeus University; 2014. [cited 2020 Feb 21]. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34236.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Klintrot O. Lastfördelning och effektmätning med Arduino och PLC. [Thesis]. Linnaeus University; 2014. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34236

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.