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You searched for subject:( Party Pills). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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University of Otago

1. Johnstone, Alice Christine. Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure .

Degree: 2011, University of Otago

Methamphetamine is an illicit psychoactive stimulant with a high abuse liability. Addiction to methamphetamine creates a significant burden on public services and a considerable cost to society. It is a complex disorder that has serious physiological and psychological consequences. There are several processes that have been theorised to lead to addiction; however, no one theory provides a comprehensive explanation for methamphetamine addiction development and its persistence. A better understanding of the molecular consequences of exposure to methamphetamine could help elucidate the changes associated with the progression to addiction. In addition, the recreational drug benzylpiperazine is of concern as it mimics the subjective effects of methamphetamine, yet little information exists on its mechanism of action, the long term effects or its propensity to create an addiction. Therefore the aim of this thesis was to investigate the molecular consequences of exposure to methamphetamine to elucidate the changes associated with this addictive drug, and determine whether the same molecular consequences were observed with benzylpiperazine. This study utilised a rodent exposure model to monitor the behavioural and neurological effects of drug exposure in previously drug naïve subjects. Two separate acute exposure experiments were performed where the two drugs showed a similar effect on rodent locomotor behaviour (10 mg.kg-1 and 20 mg.kg-1 benzylpiperazine, 1 mg.kg-1 and 2 mg.kg-1 methamphetamine and saline controls). A chronic exposure over ten days was also used where subjects showed behavioural sensitization (20 mg.kg-1 benzylpiperazine, 2 mg.kg-1 methamphetamine and saline controls). To examine the effect that this drug exposure had on neuronal expression, the striatum was removed from each animal after the exposure period to isolate mRNA and protein. The mRNA expression profiles were comprehensively analysed with Affymetrix® Rat Genome 230 2.0 or Illumina® RatRef-12 cDNA microarrays. Subsequently, twenty-six genes were selected for expressional validation with Quantitative PCR. From these results, five proteins were selected for preliminary investigations of their change in abundance, due to drug exposure, using Western blotting. The results showed that exposure to methamphetamine or benzylpiperazine had a significant effect on expression in the striatum. Acute methamphetamine significantly decreased Vip and Tph2, while acute benzylpiperazine showed a significant increase in the abundance of Oprm1, Vamp1 and Oxt. Chronic exposure to methamphetamine increased CamkIIa and Htr3a while decreasing the abundance of Vip. Chronic benzylpiperazine increased Calcr, Ceacam10 and Oprm1. Pathway analyses of the microarray results showed methamphetamine decreased expression of genes associated with neuronal development. The protein abundance of CALCR and DRD2 was decreased by acute methamphetamine, whereas chronic methamphetamine increased OPRM1. Acute benzylpiperazine increased DRD2 and both acute and chronic… Advisors/Committee Members: Kennedy, Martin (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Methamphetamine; Benzylpiperazine; Party pills; BZP; Microarray; Expression; Rat; Brain; addiction

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Johnstone, A. C. (2011). Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure . (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1682

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Johnstone, Alice Christine. “Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure .” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Otago. Accessed March 01, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1682.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Johnstone, Alice Christine. “Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure .” 2011. Web. 01 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Johnstone AC. Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Otago; 2011. [cited 2021 Mar 01]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1682.

Council of Science Editors:

Johnstone AC. Expressional Analyses of Rattus norvegicus Striatal Tissue Following Methamphetamine and Benzylpiperazine Exposure . [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Otago; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1682


University of Waikato

2. Lucas, Natasha. The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry .

Degree: 2008, University of Waikato

In the last few years, the prevalence of legal party pills in New Zealand has risen dramatically. These pills contain new piperazine designer drugs, two of the more common being 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and m-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). This thesis describes an optimised LC-MS/MS method for the detection of BZP and TFMPP in whole blood, using an automated solid phase extraction (SPE) for sample clean-up. The method was validated on three different days using five replicate samples each day. The standard curve was linear from 7 - 7000 ng/mL for BZP and 10 - 10,000 ng/mL for TFMPP, with coefficients of variation (CV) below 10%, and accuracy greater than 90% for both drugs. The method was used to quantitate samples provided by the Medical Research Institute of New Zealand. Blood levels were used to show concentrations in the blood over time, and relate these to performance of subjects on a driving simulator. The study was stopped after 41% of the participants who received BZP and TFMPP had adverse reactions to the pills, including vomiting and migraines. The LC-MS/MS method was also used to detect and quantitate methamphetamine, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in hair. The drugs were extracted from 20 mg of hair using hydrochloric acid in a water bath overnight, then purified using SPE. Validation on three days with five replicate samples gave coefficients of variation (CV) below 12% and acceptable accuracy for all drugs. The method was tested on three samples, previously reported by Environmental Science and Research (ESR) using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) giving results in good agreement. This thesis describes a sensitive, accurate, reproducible LC-MS/MS method easily adapted to analyse drugs of abuse in different biological matrices. It demonstrates the versatility of LC-MS/MS and its applications in forensic work.

Subjects/Keywords: Benzylpiperazine; BZP; Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine; TFMPP; Party Pills; Recreational Drugs; LC-MS/MS; SPE; Amphetamines; Opiates; Blood; Hair

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lucas, N. (2008). The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry . (Masters Thesis). University of Waikato. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2471

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lucas, Natasha. “The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry .” 2008. Masters Thesis, University of Waikato. Accessed March 01, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2471.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lucas, Natasha. “The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry .” 2008. Web. 01 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Lucas N. The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry . [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Waikato; 2008. [cited 2021 Mar 01]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2471.

Council of Science Editors:

Lucas N. The Analysis of Recreational Drugs in Biological Specimens Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry . [Masters Thesis]. University of Waikato; 2008. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2471

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