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Universidade do Minho

1. Mininno, Gemma. Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls .

Degree: 2016, Universidade do Minho

The un-reinforced masonry structures (URM) represent an important percentage of the building heritage, but they have poor performance in seismic condition. Hence the construction industry has been extremely interested in their repair and rehabilitation. In the last decades, the innovative materials made of continuous fibres embedded in organic matrices (FRP) have been largely adopted to enhance the seismic performance of the constructions. Initially, these materials were designed to be applied to concrete structures, and only later they were adopted also in masonry structures. Although the advantages introduced by these composite products were undeniable, some drawbacks were also observed, mainly related to the organic matrices (e.g. epoxy). As a consequence, a new type of composite materials, where the organic substrate is substituted with an inorganic matrix (e.g. cementitious or lime-based mortar), were proposed as a solution. These materials on one hand kept the positive aspects of the FRPs (improvement of the shear-resistance and the deformability without increasing the weight of the structure) and on the other hand overcame their disadvantages (poor behaviour in condition of high temperatures or fire, vulnerability to the external agents, low permeability, low compatibility with the masonry substrate). Consequently, mortar-based composites resulted to be mechanically and physically more compatible with masonry substrates and able to satisfy issues related to conservation principles as reversibility and sustainability. The innovative composite materials made of continuous fibres embedded in thin mortar layers for externally bonded reinforcement of masonry structures, typically referred to as FRCM (Fibre Reinforced Cementitious mortar) or TRM (Textile Reinforced Mortar), have recently received attention from researchers. Despite the recent interest on the use of these materials, the available information regarding their performance when applied to structures or structural components is still scare. For instance, the effectiveness of TRM systems on the seismic performance of strengthened structures is not clear yet. Given the aforementioned research context, the present thesis has the aim to investigate the effectiveness of the implementation of TRM composite materials on the in-plane and out-of-plane response of a masonry wall. Therefore, different finite element models to study the in-plane and out-of-plane performance have been created. A comparison of their behaviour in unreinforced and reinforced conditions is carried out by means of non-linear analyses, under the effect of a lateral-monotonic load proportional to the mass (pushover) first and then under the effect of a real accelerogram recorded during the L'Aquiia earthquake, occurred the 6 t of April 2009. The results are presented and discussed critically. Advisors/Committee Members: Oliveira, Daniel V (advisor), Ghiassi, Bahman (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Masonry; MM; FRCM; Strengthening; FEM modelling; In-plane behaviour; Out-of-plane behaviour; Time history analysis; Alvenaria; TRM; Modelação FEM; Comportamento no plano; Comportamento para fora do plano; Análise temporal; Muratura; Rinforzo; Modellazione FEM; Comportamento nel piano; Comportamento fuori dal piano; Analisi time history

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APA (6th Edition):

Mininno, G. (2016). Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls . (Masters Thesis). Universidade do Minho. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Mininno, Gemma. “Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls .” 2016. Masters Thesis, Universidade do Minho. Accessed May 30, 2020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Mininno, Gemma. “Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls .” 2016. Web. 30 May 2020.


Mininno G. Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls . [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universidade do Minho; 2016. [cited 2020 May 30]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Mininno G. Modelling of the behaviour of TRM-strengthened masonry walls . [Masters Thesis]. Universidade do Minho; 2016. Available from: