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University of South Africa

1. Krawitz, Lilian. Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them .

Degree: 2010, University of South Africa

The thesis is concerned with two issues, modern messiahs and their appeal, namely the highly successful Rebbe M.M. Schneerson from Chabad; and hostile, modern day, militant messianists and their beliefs, namely the USA Christian evangelicals and their rapture belief. The study directs attention at the three successful (in the sense that their movements survived their deaths) Jewish Messiahs, the 1st century Jesus, the 17th century Sabbatai Sevi and the present day, but recently deceased (1994) Rebbe Schneerson. The focus in the study falls on the latter two Jewish Messiahs, especially Rebbe Schneerson and Chabad, from Crown Heights, New York, whose messianic beliefs and conduct the thesis has been able to follow in real time. The thesis argues that Rebbe Schneerson and Chabad‟s extreme messianic beliefs and praxis, and the marked similarities that exist between all three Jewish Messiahs and their followers indicate that Chabad will probably, over time, become another religion removed from Judaism. The thesis notes that the three Jewish Messiahs share a similar messiah template, the “„suffering servant‟ messiah” template. The thesis argues that this template is related to the wide appeal and success of these three Jewish messiahs, as it offers their followers the option of vicarious atonement which relieves people from dealing with their own transgressions and permits people to evade the demanding task of assuming personal accountability for all their actions, including their transgressions. The recommendations in this thesis are prompted by the “wall of deafening silence” which is the result of political correctness and the “hands off religion” position, that prevents debate or censure of hostile militant messianism, despite the inherent dangers and high cost attached to the praxis of hostile, militant messianism and militant messianists‟ belief in exclusive apocalyptic scenarios, in modern, multicultural and democratic societies. The thesis argues this situation is not tenable and that it needs to be addressed, especially where modern day, hostile, militant messianists, unlike their predecessors at Qumran, now have access to the military and to military hardware, including nuclear warheads, and are able to hasten the End Times should they simply choose to do so. Advisors/Committee Members: Scheepers, C. L. van Wyk (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Apocalyptism; Apostasy; Chabad; Christian evangelicals; Christian Zionism; Compassion; Deification; Dual Covenant Theology; Evangelical right-wing; Hassidism; Heresy; Incarnation; Jewish Messiahs; Jewish messianism; Jewish resurrection imagery; Kabbalah; Lubavitchers; Lurianic Kabbalah; Maimonides; Messiah templates; Militant messianism; Mishneh Torah; Modern messiahs; Qumran; Rapture; Sabbatians; Sabbatai Sevi; Schneerson; Suffering servant messiah template; Gabriel Stone; Vicarious atonement

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Krawitz, L. (2010). Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them . (Doctoral Dissertation). University of South Africa. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10500/4868

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Krawitz, Lilian. “Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them .” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Africa. Accessed January 23, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10500/4868.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Krawitz, Lilian. “Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them .” 2010. Web. 23 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Krawitz L. Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Africa; 2010. [cited 2020 Jan 23]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10500/4868.

Council of Science Editors:

Krawitz L. Challenging messianism and apocalyptism : a study of the three surviving Messiahs, their related commonalities, problematic issues and the beliefs surrounding them . [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of South Africa; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10500/4868

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