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University of St. Andrews

1. Miles, David Jonathan. Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism .

Degree: 2017, University of St. Andrews

This thesis examines how American and German constitutionalism, as shaped by the U.S. Supreme Court and the German Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), have mediated the tension between threats to stability and the imperative of renewal through occasional or constant interventions in their democratic processes. To do this, it primarily assesses the 1960s U.S. reapportionment cases and the European Parliament electoral threshold cases of 2011 and 2014. It also considers the ideas of four thinkers, theorists and jurists who have wrestled with the dilemma of how to maintain the bond between citizen and state: Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde, Hannah Arendt, Thomas Jefferson and Alexis de Tocqueville. Stability and renewal represent the twin orientation points for constitutionalism and the courts against which they must adjust to possible democratic threats, or new political and social forces in need of recognition. Threats to the state can emerge either from a surfeit of illiberal views in politics and society aimed at destroying an existing constitutional order, or when democratic channels become starved of new opinions through the constitutional or unconstitutional exclusion of voters and parties. A distinctive feature of the approach taken is the conceptual division between the ‘legal/institutional’ space in which the Supreme Court and Bundesverfassungsgericht interpret constitutional meaning, and the ‘civic space’ in which citizens accept or reject constitutional meaning. One central question is how American and German constitutionalism, and the U.S. Supreme Court and Bundesverfassungsgericht shape and influence the vital civic space that is integral to the democratic relationship between citizen and state, and the survival of the state itself. Ultimately it is concluded that without acceptance of the importance of law and constitutionalism by citizens in the civic space, the influence of the Supreme Court and the Bundesverfassungsgericht becomes purely institutional and effectively consigned to the courtroom. Advisors/Committee Members: Lang, Anthony F (advisor), Rengger, N. J. (Nicholas J.) (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Constitutionalism; American constitutionalism; German constitutionalism; US Supreme Court; German Constitutional Court; Bundesverfassungsgericht; Law; Society; Civic society; European Parliament; Democracy; Politics; Elections; Electoral law; Reapportionment; Gerrymandering; Malapportionment; Barring clauses; Sperrklauseln; Electoral threshold; Electoral hurdle; Citizens; Citizenship; Civic republicanism; Representative democracy; Hannah Arendt; Thomas Jefferson; Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde; Alexis de Tocqueville; Baker v Carr; Reynolds v Sims; Electoral threshold cases; Voters; Parties; Political parties; Liberal democracy; Illiberal democracies; Social forces; Social movements; Institutions; Separation of powers; Courts; Constitutional courts; European Convention on Human Rights; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Voter exclusion; Voter engagement; Civic engagement; The law of democracy; Political theory; Christian Democratic Union; CDU; Germany; The Federal Republic of Germany; West Germany; The League of Women Voters; The Socialist Reich Party; Social Democratic Party of Germany; Values; Constitutional values; The Bill of Rights; The American Bill of Rights; Majoritarianism; Incorporation; Incorporation of the Bill of Rights; James Madison; Alexander Hamilton; The Federalist Papers; Equality; Progress; Majority rule; Tyranny; Autocracy; Totalitarianism; Rights; Individual rights; Individual; Groups; Political culture; Constitutional culture; Carl Schmitt; Hans Kelsen; The US Constitution; Constitutions; The Basic Law; The German Basic Law; Grundgesetz; Higher law; Interpretation; Constitutional complaints; Democratic suicide; Weimar; The Weimar Republic; Autonomy; Opinions; Restraint; Power; Powers; Polis; Aristotle; Aristotelian polis; Suffrage; Equal Protection Clause; The Civil War; The American Civil War; The Fourteenth Amendment; Liberty; Dignity; Human dignity; Hitler; Adolf Hitler; Konrad Adenauer; Angela Merkel; John Adams; Judges; The judiciary; Judicialisation; Juridification; Public law; Private law; The New Deal; Franklin D Roosevelt; Militant democracy; The French Revolution; Human rights; World War Two; The Second World War; The Green Party of Germany; The Greens; Religion; Nation; Nationalism; Identity; Slavery; Emancipation; Cold War; The Countermajoritarian Difficulty; Jeremy Waldron; Robert Dahl; Justice; Security; Stability; Positive law; Legal positivism; Orwell; George Orwell; Kant; Rechtsstaat; Natural law; Isonomy; Oligarchy; Principles; Hersch Lauterpacht; Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr; Carolene Products footnote four; Ruth Bader Ginsburg; National Socialism; The National Socialist Party; Brown v Board of Education; Republicanism; Republican government; Constituent power; Community; Communitarianism; Free speech; Freedom of speech; Böckenförde dilemma; The Warren Court; Earl Warren; William Brennan; Andreas Voßkuhle; State and society; Civic association; Social cohesion; Vergangenheitsbewältigung; The Holocaust; The Nazi past; Civic space; Institutional space; Racism; Minority rights; Representation; Legitimacy; Democratic participation; Electoral participation; State legislatures; Felix Frankfurter; Federal government; Segregation; Civil rights; Civil rights movement; Voting rights; Lyndon Johnson; John F Kennedy; Joseph McCarthy; The Declaration of Independence; Judicial supremacy; Collective guilt; Checks and balances; The living constitution; Hungary; Poland; Judicial activism; Judicial restraint; Judicial authority; Legislatures; Legislative fragmentation; EU; The European Union; Eurosceptics; Far right; The people; Populism; Democratic deficit; Constitutional government; Arbitrary government

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Miles, D. J. (2017). Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism . (Thesis). University of St. Andrews. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11056

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Miles, David Jonathan. “Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism .” 2017. Thesis, University of St. Andrews. Accessed December 15, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11056.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Miles, David Jonathan. “Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism .” 2017. Web. 15 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Miles DJ. Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism . [Internet] [Thesis]. University of St. Andrews; 2017. [cited 2019 Dec 15]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11056.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Miles DJ. Stability or renewal : the judicialisation of representative democracy in American and German constitutionalism . [Thesis]. University of St. Andrews; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11056

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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