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1. Jantzen, Friederike. Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species.

Degree: PhD, 2019, Universität Potsdam

Floral scent is an important way for plants to communicate with insects, but scent emission has been lost or strongly reduced during the transition from pollinator-mediated outbreeding to selfing. The shift from outcrossing to selfing is not only accompanied by scent loss, but also by a reduction in other pollinator-attracting traits like petal size and can be observed multiple times among angiosperms. These changes are summarized by the term selfing syndrome and represent one of the most prominent examples of convergent evolution within the plant kingdom. In this work the genus Capsella was used as a model to study convergent evolution in two closely related selfers with separate transitions to self-fertilization. Compared to their outbreeding ancestor C. grandiflora, the emission of benzaldehyde as main compound of floral scent is lacking or strongly reduced in the selfing species C. rubella and C. orientalis. In C. rubella the loss of benzaldehyde was caused by mutations to cinnamate:CoA ligase CNL1, but the biochemical basis and evolutionary history of this loss remained unknown, together with the genetic basis of scent loss in C. orientalis. Here, a combination of plant transformations, in vitro enzyme assays, population genetics and quantitative genetics has been used to address these questions. The results indicate that CNL1 has been inactivated twice independently by point mutations in C. rubella, leading to a loss of benzaldehyde emission. Both inactivated haplotypes can be found around the Mediterranean Sea, indicating that they arose before the speciesĀ“ geographical spread. This study confirmed CNL1 as a hotspot for mutations to eliminate benzaldehyde emission, as it has been suggested by previous studies. In contrast to these findings, CNL1 in C. orientalis remains active. To test whether similar mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of scent loss in C. orientalis a QTL mapping approach was used and the results suggest that this closely related species followed a different evolutionary route to reduce floral scent, possibly reflecting that the convergent evolution of floral scent is driven by ecological rather than genetic factors. In parallel with studying the genetic basis of repeated scent loss a method for testing the adaptive value of individual selfing syndrome traits was established. The established method allows estimating outcrossing rates with a high throughput of samples and detects successfully insect-mediated outcrossing events, providing major advantages regarding time and effort compared to other approaches. It can be applied to correlate outcrossing rates with differences in individual traits by using quasi-isogenic lines as demonstrated here or with environmental or morphological parameters. Convergent evolution can not only be observed for scent loss in Capsella but also for the morphological evolution of petal size. Previous studies detected several QTLs underlying the petal size reduction in C. orientalis and C. rubella, some of them shared among both species. One shared QTL… Advisors/Committee Members: Lenhard, Michael (advisor), Alexander, Vainstein (referee), Schiestl, Florian P. (referee).

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APA (6th Edition):

Jantzen, F. (2019). Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species. (Doctoral Dissertation). Universität Potsdam. Retrieved from https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/43525

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Jantzen, Friederike. “Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, Universität Potsdam. Accessed October 19, 2019. https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/43525.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Jantzen, Friederike. “Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species.” 2019. Web. 19 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Jantzen F. Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Universität Potsdam; 2019. [cited 2019 Oct 19]. Available from: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/43525.

Council of Science Editors:

Jantzen F. Genetic basis and adaptive significance of repeated scent loss in selfing Capsella species. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Universität Potsdam; 2019. Available from: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/43525

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