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1. Paul, Fabian. Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins.

Degree: PhD, 2017, Universität Potsdam

Proteins are molecules that are essential for life and carry out an enormous number of functions in organisms. To this end, they change their conformation and bind to other molecules. However, the interplay between conformational change and binding is not fully understood. In this work, this interplay is investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein-peptide system Mdm2-PMI and by analysis of data from relaxation experiments. The central task it to uncover the binding mechanism, which is described by the sequence of (partial) binding events and conformational change events including their probabilities. In the simplest case, the binding mechanism is described by a two-step model: binding followed by conformational change or conformational change followed by binding. In the general case, longer sequences with multiple conformational changes and partial binding events are possible as well as parallel pathways that differ in their sequences of events. The theory of Markov state models (MSMs) provides the theoretical framework in which all these cases can be modeled. For this purpose, MSMs are estimated in this work from MD data, and rate equation models, which are related to MSMs, are inferred from experimental relaxation data. The MD simulation and Markov modeling of the PMI-Mdm2 system shows that PMI and Mdm2 can bind via multiple pathways. A main result of this work is a dissociation rate on the order of one event per second, which was calculated using Markov modeling and is in agreement with experiment. So far, dissociation rates and transition rates of this magnitude have only been calculated with methods that speed up transitions by acting with time-dependent, external forces on the binding partners. The simulation technique developed in this work, in contrast, allows the estimation of dissociation rates from the combination of free energy calculation and direct MD simulation of the fast binding process. Two new statistical estimators TRAM and TRAMMBAR are developed to estimate a MSM from the joint data of both simulation types. In addition, a new analysis technique for time-series data from chemical relaxation experiments is developed in this work. It allows to identify one of the above-mentioned two-step mechanisms as the mechanism that underlays the data. The new method is valid for a broader range of concentrations than previous methods and therefore allows to choose the concentrations such that the mechanism can be uniquely identified. It is successfully tested with data for the binding of recoverin to a rhodopsin kinase peptide.

Proteine sind für das Leben essentielle Moleküle, die eine Vielzahl von Funktionen in Organismen ausüben. Dazu ändern sie ihre Konformation und binden an andere Moleküle. Jedoch ist das Zusammenspiel zwischen Konformationsänderung und Bindung nicht vollständig verstanden. In dieser Arbeit wird dieses Zusammenspiel mit Molekulardynamik-Simulationen (MD) des Protein-Peptid-Systems Mdm2-PMI und mit der Analyse von Daten aus Relaxationsexperimenten…

Advisors/Committee Members: Weikl, Thomas (advisor), Noé, Frank (advisor).

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APA (6th Edition):

Paul, F. (2017). Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins. (Doctoral Dissertation). Universität Potsdam. Retrieved from https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/40427

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Paul, Fabian. “Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, Universität Potsdam. Accessed December 14, 2017. https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/40427.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Paul, Fabian. “Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins.” 2017. Web. 14 Dec 2017.

Vancouver:

Paul F. Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Universität Potsdam; 2017. [cited 2017 Dec 14]. Available from: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/40427.

Council of Science Editors:

Paul F. Markov state modeling of binding and conformational changes of proteins. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Universität Potsdam; 2017. Available from: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/40427

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