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1. Akinyi, Teckla G. An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging.

Degree: MS, Engineering and Applied Science: Biomedical Engineering, 2017, University of Cincinnati

The cellular and molecular events underlying disease can be studied using mouse models; however the relationship between the mechanistic details of diseases and the pathophysiology that results in function loss remains obscure. Extracting lung function from mice is particularly challenging, because they cannot cooperate with testing and have minute lung volumes (tidal volume ~0.2 ml). Therefore histology and highly invasive functional measurements are typically used to characterize disease, limiting the ability to assess disease progression. As a result, most mouse studies require large numbers of animals, adding substantially to the expense and duration of experiments. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising approach for overcoming these obstacles, because it provides high levels of soft tissue contrast. This allows disease phenotypes to be characterized in vivo and with spatial resolutions of ~100 µm —rivaling that of traditional histology for most tissues. Lung MRI is particularly challenging in mice because of low parenchyma density (~10% that of skeletal muscle), rapid physiological motion (~100 breaths/min and >300 heart beats/min), and rapid T2* relaxation of <0.5 ms at field strengths used for small animal MRI (4.5–9.4 T), making conventional MRI almost impossible. These challenges are overcome by using hyperpolarized (HP) xenon-129 and helium-3 to directly image lung function. Hyperpolarization provides 10,000-fold signal enhancement and a 10 to 50-fold longer T2* enabling the distribution of inhaled HP gases to be directly imaged, with resolutions as high as 70×70×800 µm, providing high resolution maps of ventilation in the mouse lung. Unfortunately, the existing HP gas and MRI compatible ventilators used to support preclinical imaging require specialized scientific software or intricate system designs, limiting experimental flexibility and widespread dissemination. Presented in this work is a portable, yet robust design for a highly adaptable mouse ventilator that is constructed entirely from inexpensive, off-the-self components and that enables high resolution HP gas and conventional lung MRI. Automation is simplified by use of a credit-card size single board computer, Raspberry Pi (Rpi) B+ and its complimentary input/output board, Pi Cobbler (Adafruit, Industries, New York, NY, USA), which also increases the compactness of our design. The Rpi is programmable through the open-source software, Python™ programming language allowing for a highly customizable user interface for ventilator control and physiological monitoring. Similar to prior ventilator designs, a constant gas volume is robustly delivered by varying the driving pressure. Additionally, the ventilator can monitor airway pressure, cardiac electrical activity and body temperature. In contrast to previous designs however, which cost ~$10,000 for materials, a dedicated desk-top computer, and a commercial LabVIEW® (National Instruments, Austin TX, USA), this streamlined and automated design is operated using a ~$50 Rpi that uses… Advisors/Committee Members: Cleveland, Zackary (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Biomedical Research; Hyperpolarized; Pulmonary; Ventilation; Preclinical; Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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APA (6th Edition):

Akinyi, T. G. (2017). An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging. (Masters Thesis). University of Cincinnati. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1490354672385997

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Akinyi, Teckla G. “An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging.” 2017. Masters Thesis, University of Cincinnati. Accessed September 22, 2017. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1490354672385997.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Akinyi, Teckla G. “An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging.” 2017. Web. 22 Sep 2017.

Vancouver:

Akinyi TG. An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Cincinnati; 2017. [cited 2017 Sep 22]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1490354672385997.

Council of Science Editors:

Akinyi TG. An Affordable Open-Source Small Animal MR and Hyperpolarized Gas Compatible Ventilator: Feasibility in preclinical imaging. [Masters Thesis]. University of Cincinnati; 2017. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1490354672385997

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