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Kent State University

1. Kubitza, Steven. An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest.

Degree: MA, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication, 2019, Kent State University

Media depictions of protesters can alter how audiences perceive them. Specifically, when news media frames a protest as an exercise of First Amendment freedoms, audiences are more tolerant of the group’s activities. Here, I use a survey experiment (n = 168) to test these framing effects in the context of protesting athletes. I also examine theoretically relevant mechanisms that may moderate how individuals process civil liberty media frames. Specifically, I test whether racial resentment and blind or constructive patriotism moderate civil liberty framing effects on tolerance toward protesting athletes. In addition to providing a test of media framing effects in the context of a timely and salient social issue, this study elaborates on mechanisms by which civil liberties frames may operate on tolerance. My results do not show a main effect of receiving either a “free speech” or a “disrespect” frame on tolerance for protesting athletes. This lack of a statistically significant main effect may simply be a result of an underpowered study. Conversely, it may reflect a genuine inability of media to alter tolerance for protesting athletes as a unique social group. I also find blind patriotism and modern racism are positively related to tolerance for athletes regardless of frame exposure. I find no interactions between treatments and these participant dispositions, suggesting tolerance for athletes was primarily a function of participant psychological orientations rather than media influence. These results can be interpreted with some optimism¬—a basic orientation like political tolerance is not as easily altered by media as was found in prior research. In my conclusion, I discuss practical and normative ramifications of framing athlete protests as a matter of First Amendment rights and what can be tested in future studies. Advisors/Committee Members: York, Chance (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Mass Media; Mass Communications; Political Science; professional athletes, media framing, political tolerance, survey experiment

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kubitza, S. (2019). An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest. (Masters Thesis). Kent State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1574642843982547

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kubitza, Steven. “An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest.” 2019. Masters Thesis, Kent State University. Accessed December 08, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1574642843982547.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kubitza, Steven. “An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest.” 2019. Web. 08 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Kubitza S. An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Kent State University; 2019. [cited 2019 Dec 08]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1574642843982547.

Council of Science Editors:

Kubitza S. An Athlete’s Right?Effects of Media Frames on the Tolerance of a Professional Athlete Protest. [Masters Thesis]. Kent State University; 2019. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1574642843982547

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