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1. Plichta, Veronika. Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig.
Degree: PhD, Medizinische Fakultät, 2018, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
For decades, phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in plenty of consumer products e.g. food packaging, toys, clothing and personal care products. They are not chemically bound to the polymer matrix, so they can easily be released into the environment for example by leaching or migration. Humans are exposed to phthalates via ingestion, inhalation or dermal uptake. They are rapidly metabolized in humans and excreted via urine, mainly within two days. Phthalates act as endocrine disruptors and target mainly the reproductive system. According to US-Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), infants have an unintended uptake of 60 mg dust per day. Among other things, dust contains a various amount of pollutants as e.g. phthalates. Therefore, dust could pose a potential health risk to humans. Currently there are no information’s about the bioavailability of phthalate in dust. Consequently in risk assessments the bioavailability is determined as 100 %. In the case of phthalates, in vitro digestion tests are indicating a bioaccessibility of 10 – 32 %. The aim of this study was to determine the relative oral bioavailability of certain phthalates as butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) in house dust after oral ingestion. Study design: Seven five week old piglets were fed five different dust samples collected from daycare centers and one food sample. Overall, 0.43 to 0.83 g of dust samples sieved to 63 µm were administered orally. The urine was collected over a period of 38 hours. The excreted metabolites were quantified using an LC-MS/MS method. Results: The mean uptake rate of the applied dust dose for BBzP, DnBP, DEHP and DINP is 28 ± 18 %, 52 ± 18 %, 43 ± 11 % and 47 ± 26 %, respectively. The bioavailability in food is 37 ± 23 % for BBzP, 39 ± 16% for DnBP, 53 ± 15 % for DEHP and 43 ± 13 % for DINP. No significant difference between the quantities of plasticizers excreted in urine after dust administration compared to food was observed. The metabolites showed their maximum concentration three to five hours post dose. Conclusion: The bioavailability of the investigated phthalates is much higher compared to the bioaccessibility reported from in vitro digestion tests. Furthermore it is noticeable that the bioavailability of DEHP does not vary between the dust samples. A dose dependent saturation process for DINP was observed. Besides other intake pathways, dust could pose a relevant source of phthalates for toddlers.
Seit Jahrzenten werden Phthalate in großen Mengen als Weichmacher in (Lebensmittel-) Verpackungsmaterial, Spielzeug oder Kleidung eingesetzt und zählen daher zu einer der wichtigsten Industriechemikalien. Phthalate sind nicht an die Polymermatrix gebunden und können durch (Ab-)Nutzung relativ leicht in die Umwelt abgegeben werden. Phthalate werden als endokrin aktive Substanzen eingestuft und haben eine negative Wirkung auf das Reproduktionssystem. Kleinkinder nehmen oral täglich 60 mg unbeabsichtigt Hausstaub…Advisors/Committee Members: Nowak, Dennis (advisor).
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APA (6th Edition):
Plichta, V. (2018). Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig. (Doctoral Dissertation). Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität. Retrieved from https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21821/
Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):
Plichta, Veronika. “Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität. Accessed December 18, 2018. https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21821/.
MLA Handbook (7th Edition):
Plichta, Veronika. “Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig.” 2018. Web. 18 Dec 2018.
Plichta V. Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität; 2018. [cited 2018 Dec 18]. Available from: https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21821/.
Council of Science Editors:
Plichta V. Bioavailability of plasticizers in dust and food after oral administration to model organism pig. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität; 2018. Available from: https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21821/