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University of Rochester

1. Kulawiec, Andrew William (1967 - ). Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy.

Degree: PhD, 2017, University of Rochester

The use of scanning optical microscopy for the purpose of quantitative phase imaging is theoretically and experimentally explored. In particular, several novel system configurations are presented and analyzed for their phase imaging capabilities. In these systems, absorptive filters are placed in the pupils of the microscope to encode object phase slope information into the image signal. With suitable processing and integration, the object phase profile is reconstructed. </br>The phase imaging properties of the scanning optical microscopes are analyzed using a phase wedge model based on scalar diffraction theory. It is shown that the novel two-filter arrangement introduced in this thesis provides an unambiguous response to object phase slope. This permits a quantitative reconstruction of the object phase profile. In addition, the phase measurement is not affected by reflectance or transmittance variations in the object. </br>Both confocal and conventional scanning microscopes are analyzed as a function of the pupil filter. Continuous absorptive filters and split-pupil filters are considered. It is shown that the absorptive pupil filter images twice the range of slopes of the split-pupil systems. In addition, the square root absorptive filter is shown to produce the most linear response for both the confocal and conventional scanning systems. </br>The design, construction and operation of a reflection surface profiling instrument incorporating these phase imaging techniques are described. Measurements are performed with this instrument that confirm the validity of the phase wedge models used to analyze these systems. In addition, surface profile measurements of several samples are presented which demonstrate the operation of this instrument. Important advantages of these systems include the large range of slopes measured and the superior imaging properties of the confocal microscope. Furthermore, there is no restriction on the total extent of the phase variations present in the object. As long as the phase slope remains within the limit determined by the numerical aperture of the objective, the object phase profile can be accurately determined. Finally, these systems are able to image twice the range of slopes of previously reported coherent optical processing systems.

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APA (6th Edition):

Kulawiec, A. W. (. -. ). (2017). Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Rochester. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kulawiec, Andrew William (1967 - ). “Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Rochester. Accessed April 26, 2018.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kulawiec, Andrew William (1967 - ). “Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy.” 2017. Web. 26 Apr 2018.


Kulawiec AW(-). Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Rochester; 2017. [cited 2018 Apr 26]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Kulawiec AW(-). Quantitative phase imaging in scanning optical microscopy. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Rochester; 2017. Available from: