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University of Oklahoma

1. Butterworth, Mitch. Authentic Leadership Measures.

Degree: PhD, 2020, University of Oklahoma

The purpose of this study was to explore the structural validity and the structural reliability of the three measures for authentic leadership (Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Inventory, Authentic Leadership-Integrated Questionnaire) by extending and replicating the analytic methods from the Levesque-Cote, Fernet, Austin & Morin, (2018) study, to an English speaking sample. For establishing convergent validity, the study employed Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Experimental Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), and Bi-factor Analytic Modeling (BAM) on the three measures of authentic leadership. To establish discriminant validity, the study examined the correlations between the three measures of authentic leadership and emotional intelligence. The main contribution of this study is the extension and replication of the Levesque-Cote et al., (2018) study to an English speaking sample. The study also established the convergent validity of the Authentic Leadership-Integrated Questionnaire (AL-IQ), using a four factor ESEM model, which was superior to the CFA and BAM. Finally, the study failed to establish discriminant validity between authentic leadership and emotional intelligence, as there were strong correlations among the two constructs. Advisors/Committee Members: Terry, Robert (advisor), Day, Eric (committee member), Herztke, Allen (committee member), Gabert, Trent (committee member), Gaddie, Keith (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Authentic leadership; measures; factor structure

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Butterworth, M. (2020). Authentic Leadership Measures. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Oklahoma. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Butterworth, Mitch. “Authentic Leadership Measures.” 2020. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oklahoma. Accessed July 08, 2020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Butterworth, Mitch. “Authentic Leadership Measures.” 2020. Web. 08 Jul 2020.


Butterworth M. Authentic Leadership Measures. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Oklahoma; 2020. [cited 2020 Jul 08]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Butterworth M. Authentic Leadership Measures. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Oklahoma; 2020. Available from: