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Universität Tübingen

1. Faber, Hanna. Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity .

Degree: 2018, Universität Tübingen

Introduction: Neuronal connectivity can be up- or down-regulated according to the temporal sequence of in- and output potentials – a process called spike-timing plasticity (STDP) (Bi and Poo 2001, Hebb 1949, Markram et al. 2011). Paired associative stimulation (PAS) of the human cortex modifies brain connectivity in a STDP-like manner (Arai et al. 2011, Koch et al. 2013, Stefan et al. 2000). In stroke patients, the degree of motor recovery correlates with the grade of restored connectivity between the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left primary motor cortex (M1) (Rehme et al. 2011). PAS of this connectivity (PASSMA→M1) can modulate M1 excitability bidirectionally (Arai et al. 2011). As effects are short-lived, they are not yet beneficial for the patient. This thesis aimed to overcome this obstacle in transferring the cellular principle of cooperativity to the network level. At the cellular level pairing a subthreshold presynaptic stimulus for long-term potentiation (LTP) with either (1) an extracellular stimulus or (2) postsynaptic depolarization rescues LTP (Sjöström and Häusser 2006, Sjöström et al. 2001). Experiment 1 examined, if cooperative PAS of the contralateral motor cortex (M1c) and M1 (PASM1c→M1) with PASSMA→M1 increases M1 excitability. Experiment 2 tested, whether cooperative anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with PASSMA→M1, in contrast to cathodal tDCS, enhances M1 excitability and effective SMA-M1 connectivity. Material and Methods: Experiment 1 examined 11 healthy right-handed participants (8 males, 3 females). 15 healthy right-handed males participated in experiment 2. All subjects gave written informed consent. Both studies conformed to the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki and were approved by the local Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany. We developed two innovative stimulation techniques. In experiment 1 we used a triple coil technique for cooperative PASM1c→M1 with PASSMA→M1 in a double-blinded, pseudo-randomized crossover design. Effects on motor cortex excitability were analyzed up to one hour after the intervention. Experiment 2 tested the cooperative effects of the concurrent application of tDCS with PASSMA→M1 in a double-blinded, pseudo-randomized crossover design. Based on electric field modulations, we applied a novel electrode montage: the electrode for primary motor cortex stimulation was placed 3 cm posterior to the hand area of M1. We evaluated effects on M1 excitability and effective SMA-M1 connectivity on motor evoked potentials of a hand muscle up to two hours after the intervention and analyzed the data statistically. Results: Cooperative PASM1c→M1 with PASSMA→M1 in experiment 1 caused no significant change in M1 excitability compared to a control condition. In experiment 2 cooperative anodal tDCS with PASSMA→M1 did not increase M1 excitability or effective SMA-M1 connectivity significantly. However, post-hoc analysis showed a significant tDCS with PASSMA→M1 interaction. Anodal… Advisors/Committee Members: Ziemann, Ulf (Prof. Dr.) (advisor).

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APA (6th Edition):

Faber, H. (2018). Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity . (Thesis). Universität Tübingen. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10900/84632

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Faber, Hanna. “Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity .” 2018. Thesis, Universität Tübingen. Accessed November 22, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10900/84632.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Faber, Hanna. “Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity .” 2018. Web. 22 Nov 2018.

Vancouver:

Faber H. Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity . [Internet] [Thesis]. Universität Tübingen; 2018. [cited 2018 Nov 22]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10900/84632.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Faber H. Cooperative noninvasive brain stimulation to induce long-term motor plasticity . [Thesis]. Universität Tübingen; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10900/84632

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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