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1. Lundmark, Anna. Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing .

Degree: 2017, Karolinska Institute

Periodontitis is a microbial-induced, chronic inflammatory disease that affects tissue and bone anchoring the teeth, and can ultimately lead to tooth loss. In addition, periodontitis may contribute to systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel diseases. The pathogenesis of periodontitis is complex and involves bacterial products and host-immune response, as well as genetic and environmental factors. Despite extensive studies, the specific genes and mechanisms contributing to disease initiation and progression are poorly understood. The main aim of this thesis was to add to current knowledge of the disease; for this, we generated the transcriptomic and taxonomic profiles from gingival tissue and saliva samples collected from patients with periodontitis and from healthy controls. Study I explored the gene expression profile of periodontitis compared to the healthy state. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) we characterized the gene expression of gingival biopsies from 62 patients with periodontitis and 62 healthy controls. In patients with periodontitis, RNA-seq showed that genes related to inflammation, the wounding and defence responses, apoptosis, and cell death were up-regulated compared with the controls while genes related to extracellular matrix organization and structural support were down-regulated. The two most highly up-regulated genes in periodontitis were mucin 4 (MUC4) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). Comparisons of the gene expression profiles of periodontitis, CVD, RA, and the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis (UC) identified only one gene that was commonly up-regulated in all four inflammatory conditions: pleckstrin (PLEK). Study II investigated the protein products of MUC4 and MMP7 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from patients with periodontitis and from healthy controls. MUC4 levels were significantly lower in the saliva and GCF samples of patients with periodontitis compared to the controls, whereas MMP7 levels were significantly higher. Controlling for age and smoking, analyses revealed a significant association between MUC4 levels and periodontitis. Analysis that controlled for total protein levels, age, and smoking also found a significant association between the ratio of MUC4 to MMP7 levels and periodontitis, suggesting that this combination of MUC4 and MMP7 could possibly be used as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis. Study III used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the taxonomic composition in saliva and investigate the correlation between presence of microorganisms and levels of host inflammatory mediators in samples from 46 patients with periodontitis and 47 healthy controls. The composition of the microbial community differed significantly between these two groups. The microbes Prevotella sp., Phocaeicola sp., Fretibacterium sp., Streptococcus mitis/parasanguinis, Eubacterium saphenum, Tannerella forsythia,…

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APA (6th Edition):

Lundmark, A. (2017). Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing . (Thesis). Karolinska Institute. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10616/45969

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lundmark, Anna. “Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing .” 2017. Thesis, Karolinska Institute. Accessed November 19, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10616/45969.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lundmark, Anna. “Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing .” 2017. Web. 19 Nov 2017.

Vancouver:

Lundmark A. Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing . [Internet] [Thesis]. Karolinska Institute; 2017. [cited 2017 Nov 19]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10616/45969.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Lundmark A. Transcriptomic and taxonomic profiling of periodontitis by massively parallel sequencing . [Thesis]. Karolinska Institute; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10616/45969

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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