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University of Saskatchewan

1. Misra, Prachee 1986-. Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers.

Degree: 2017, University of Saskatchewan

Recent developments in the petroleum refinery processes are focused on the production of ultra-low sulfur fuels due to the stringent environmental regulations. Heavy crude oil, also known as the synthetic crude derived from the oil sands is emerging as one of the sources to meet the present and future energy demands. However, heavy oil contains high concentration of heterocyclic sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A major challenge in achieving deep hydrodesulfurization with the conventional hydrotreating technology is the inhibition and deactivation of the catalyst caused by heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Amongst the sulfur compounds present in the petroleum feed, benzothiophene and its derivatives are unsusceptible to conventional hydrotreating catalyst leading to impediment in achieving deep hydrodesulfurization. There is a critical need for the improvement in hydrotreating technologies to reduce sulfur and nitrogen levels in the fuels derived from unconventional resources. Therefore, a pre-treatment process using functionalized polymers has been developed for the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds from gas oil via charge transfer complex mechanism. Functionalized polymer comprises of polymer support, linker and π-acceptor; these parts were modified to enhance nitrogen and sulfur removal. The research work was divided into five phases. The first phase was focused on studying the effects of different electron withdrawing π-acceptors on the nitrogen and sulfur removal. Three π-acceptors with 2, 3 and 4 electron withdrawing nitro groups attached on the fluorenone moiety were synthesized; viz., 2,7-dinitro-9-fluorenone (DNF); 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TriNF) and 2,4,5,7-tetranitro-9-fluorenone (TENF), respectively. Porous polymer support [copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, poly (GMA-co-EGDMA)] was functionalized with the π-acceptors via hydroxylamine linker. The optimized polymers successfully removed 14.4 wt.% of total nitrogen and 1.4 wt.% of total sulfur from light gas oil at room temperature. It was found that the removal of these impurities is due to the formation of charge transfer complexes between π-acceptor functionalized polymers and heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur species present in gas oil. In the second phase, the effects of changing the linker length on nitrogen and sulfur removal was studied. The linkers were varied from a two-carbon (diaminoethane, DAE (2)), a three-carbon (diaminopropane, DAP(3)) to a four-carbon (diaminobutane, DAB(4)) containing compounds while the functionalized polymer consisted of identical polymer support, poly (GMA-co-EGDMA) and π-acceptor (TENF). 19 wt.% removal of nitrogen compounds from light gas oil was observed using diaminopropane (DAP(3)) substituted polymers in a batch reactor at ambient temperature with polymer to oil loading ratio of 1:4 wt./wt. In the third phase, polymers with high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPEs) were synthesized to study the effects of polymer support on the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds… Advisors/Committee Members: Dalai, Ajay (advisor), Adjaye, John (advisor), Meda, Venkatesh (committee member), Niu, Catherine (committee member), Soltan, Jafar (committee member), Foley, Stephen (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Desulfurization; denitrogenation

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APA (6th Edition):

Misra, P. 1. (2017). Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers. (Thesis). University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10388/7866

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Misra, Prachee 1986-. “Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers.” 2017. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan. Accessed October 21, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/10388/7866.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Misra, Prachee 1986-. “Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers.” 2017. Web. 21 Oct 2017.

Vancouver:

Misra P1. Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 2017. [cited 2017 Oct 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/7866.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Misra P1. Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Bitumen-Derived Gas Oils using Functionalized Polymers. [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/7866

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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