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Lincoln University

1. Yi, Zicheng. The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils.

Degree: 2019, Lincoln University

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is a global issue, because its transfer to edible parts of common crop plants can pose a risk to food security. Soil Cd concentrations in NZ agricultural systems have been elevated due to the application of Cd-rich phosphorus fertilisers. The aim of this work was to investigate options for managing the potential Cd risk in NZ agricultural soils. To assess the main environmental factors determining Cd uptake into plants in the NZ soil environment, more than 500 soils and paired plant (edible parts) samples from around 100 cropping sites where lettuce, spinach, onion, potato and wheat were grown were collected. The results showed that mean Cd concentrations in lettuce, wheat, onion and potato were much lower than the maximum level of Cd in the Food Standard of Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ ML) of 0.1 mg kg-1 (fresh weight, FW). The mean Cd concentration in baby spinach and bunching spinach was 0.08 mg kg-1, with plant Cd concentrations at some sites approaching or exceeding this current NZ food standard. Around 7% of wheat grain samples also exceeded 0.1 mg kg-1 (FW). The effects of plant types and cultivars on plant Cd concentration were significant but varied between growing sites (regions) in this study. Multivariate regression analysis found that soil Cd concentration, pH and region could be used to estimate Cd concentrations in onions, while soil Cd concentration and carbon content could predict Cd concentration in bunching spinach. However, no significant relationships between plant Cd concentration and soil properties were observed in wheat grain and potato tuber. At a national scale, Cd concentrations in spinach and onion positively correlated with soil (pseudo) total Cd concentrations. Potato and wheat grown in Canterbury had a larger potential to accumulate Cd, although soil Cd concentrations in Canterbury were lower than in other regions. To investigate the relationship between soil Cd bioavailability and environmental factors in more detail, 147 paired soil and plant samples were randomly selected from the national survey for a more targeted investigation. Different methods were used to test the bioavailability of the Cd (pseudo-total and porewater concentrations, 0.05 M Ca(NO3)2-extraction and diffusive gradients in thin-films, DGT). Information on a variety of soil and climatic variables were also collected. The ability of these methods to predict the Cd concentrations in the various plant samples were then compared. The bioavailability testing showed that the predictive capability of these four methods varied between plants, with no single test providing an adequate prediction for all four species. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, once certain soil and climatic variables were accounted for, Ca(NO3)2 extractions could provide a satisfactory prediction of Cd uptake by onions and spinach, while the Cd accumulation in potato tuber and wheat grain were affected by various environmental factors, including: soil variables, fertiliser status,…

Subjects/Keywords: cadmium; contamination; bioavailable cadmium; trace element; soil amendments; heavy metals; Cd availability; Cd uptake; lime; compost; P fertilisers; fertiliser; phosphorus; mass balance; lettuce; spinach; onion; potato; wheat; cultivar; soil properties; diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT); calcium nitrate extraction; 050304 Soil Chemistry (excl. Carbon Sequestration Science); 0503 Soil Sciences; 05 Environmental Sciences; 0501 Ecological Applications; 039901 Environmental Chemistry (incl. Atmospheric Chemistry)

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Yi, Z. (2019). The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils. (Thesis). Lincoln University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10182/10903

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Yi, Zicheng. “The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils.” 2019. Thesis, Lincoln University. Accessed September 19, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10182/10903.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Yi, Zicheng. “The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils.” 2019. Web. 19 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Yi Z. The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils. [Internet] [Thesis]. Lincoln University; 2019. [cited 2019 Sep 19]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/10903.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Yi Z. The role of environmental and management factors in the accumulation and plant bioavailability of cadmium in New Zealand agricultural soils. [Thesis]. Lincoln University; 2019. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/10903

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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