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You searched for +publisher:"Washington State University" +contributor:("Hagen, Edward H"). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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Washington State University

1. [No author]. Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin .

Degree: 2015, Washington State University

Little is known about substance use among extant hunting-gathering populations. I therefore conducted one of the first biocultural, and biomarker validated, studies of tobacco and cannabis among the Aka foragers of the Congo Basin. Because tobacco and cannabis contain anthelmintic compounds, and because the Aka suffer from high rates of helminthiasis, I also tested a hypothesis that recreational use of neurotoxic plants helps defend against parasites. Self- and peer-reports of tobacco and cannabis were collected from all Aka residing in the study area (n=379). Detailed questions about substance use were asked among a subset of these. Because female use was low, I restricted saliva, urine and stool sample collections to men. Saliva samples were assayed for cotinine, a nicotine metabolite; urine samples were assayed for THCA, a metabolite of THC; a subsample was genotyped for the CYP2A6 enzyme, which metabolizes nicotine. Stool samples were assayed for intestinal helminth eggs as an index of worm burden. Aka men pay more for tobacco, yet have a higher smoking prevalence (95%) than men in most other populations, whereas Aka women have a low prevalence. Aka thus have one of the largest known gender differences in smoking. Tobacco is widely shared, and might play a central role in this defining aspect of Aka culture. Significant negative correlations between cotinine and worm burden and THCA and worm burden were found. Treating helminths with a commercial anthelmintic reduced cotinine concentration two weeks later, compared to placebo controls. Significant negative rank correlations were found between year 1 cotinine concentrations and reinfection by year 2 and between year 2 THCA concentrations and reinfection. Finally, younger and older participants with slow nicotine-metabolizing alleles had lower worm burdens compared to those with extensive metabolizing alleles. Tobacco advertising cannot easily explain the high prevalence of smoking among Aka men, nor can socioeconomic disparities, proscriptions, or the addictiveness of nicotine easily explain the low prevalence among Aka women. Aka smoking might be better explained by internal, rather than external, cultural and political-economic factors. In addition, these results provide the first support for the hypothesis that substance use helps defend against parasites. Advisors/Committee Members: Hagen, Edward H (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Physical anthropology; Cultural anthropology; Sub Saharan Africa studies; Addiction; Biocultural; Biomarkers; Hunter-gatherers; Intestinal Helminths; Recreational drugs

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

author], [. (2015). Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin . (Thesis). Washington State University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2376/5497

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

author], [No. “Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin .” 2015. Thesis, Washington State University. Accessed March 01, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2376/5497.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

author], [No. “Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin .” 2015. Web. 01 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

author] [. Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin . [Internet] [Thesis]. Washington State University; 2015. [cited 2021 Mar 01]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2376/5497.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

author] [. Behavioral Ecology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among Aka Foragers of the Congo Basin . [Thesis]. Washington State University; 2015. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2376/5497

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Washington State University

2. [No author]. LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES .

Degree: 2019, Washington State University

Evolutionary approaches to leadership are reinvigorating and unifying a diverse field. Influential evolutionary theories in anthropology have increasingly linked human leadership with prestige and social learning. Until very recently, many such theories have been inadequately supported with evidence from traditional societies. Evolutionary anthropologists often rely on a broad range of evidence. Recent advances in genetics and emerging views of leadership in nonhuman species provide an opportunity to revise existing theories. An extensive review of evidence and theories on leadership, prestige and social learning suggested informational-based leadership – a form of “prestige” – occurs across diverse taxa; cumulative, complex culture may be uniquely human, but prestige-based leadership is not. Using the electronic Human Relations Area Files (eHRAF) social learning in the ethnographic record among hunter-gatherers was assessed. Results suggested oblique and vertical transmission appear at similar rates and various forms of teaching are the most common processes of social learning. Vertical and oblique social learning are predominantly characterized by teaching, whereas horizontal social learning is primarily through collaborative learning. Approximations of age reveal a developmental pattern in which social learning of miscellaneous skills characterizes infancy, subsistence skills dominate childhood, and the social learning of religious beliefs are most frequent during adolescence. A novel field study revealed similarities between male and female elected leaders in a small-scale, egalitarian society, with the exception of aggressiveness which characterized male leaders but seemed to preclude women from leadership positions. This study also provided the first test of the prediction that prestigious leaders should be the target of biased social learning; results suggested a measure of biased social learning is only a modest predictor of leader status but was a strong predictor of being respected. Evolutionary frameworks of leadership should account for the full range of human cultural diversity. Collectively, these works highlight the importance of incorporating evolutionary approaches into leadership studies generally and provide novel systematic results from traditional societies relevant to existing theoretical models on leadership, prestige, and social learning. Advisors/Committee Members: Hagen, Edward H (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Behavioral sciences; Social structure; Social research; Cross-cultural; Dominance; Ethnography; Leadership; Prestige; Social learning

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

author], [. (2019). LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES . (Thesis). Washington State University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2376/16803

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

author], [No. “LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES .” 2019. Thesis, Washington State University. Accessed March 01, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2376/16803.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

author], [No. “LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES .” 2019. Web. 01 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

author] [. LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES . [Internet] [Thesis]. Washington State University; 2019. [cited 2021 Mar 01]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2376/16803.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

author] [. LEADERSHIP, PRESTIGE, AND SOCIAL LEARNING ACROSS TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES . [Thesis]. Washington State University; 2019. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2376/16803

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.