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You searched for +publisher:"Virginia Tech" +contributor:("Kalb, Joel T."). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Virginia Tech

1. Myles, Kimberly. Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments.

Degree: PhD, Industrial and Systems Engineering, 2009, Virginia Tech

Many military conflicts are fought in urban environments that subject the U.S. soldier to a number of challenges not otherwise found in traditional battle. In the urban environment, the soldier is subject to threatening attacks not only from the organized army but also from civilians who harbor hostility. U.S. enemies use the civilian crowd as an unconventional tactic to blend in and look like civilians, and in response to this growing trend, soldiers must detect and identify civilians as a threat or non-threat. To identify a civilian as a threat, soldiers must familiarize themselves with behavioral cues that implicate threatening individuals. This study elicited expert strategies regarding how to use nonverbal cues to detect a threat and evaluated the best medium for distinguishing a threat from a non-threat to develop a training guide of heuristics for training novices (i.e., soldiers) in the threat detection domain. Forty experts from the threat detection domain were interviewed to obtain strategies regarding how to use nonverbal cues to detect a threat (Phase 1). The use of nonverbal cues in context and learning from intuitive individuals in the domain stood out as strategies that would promote the efficient use of nonverbal cues in detecting a threat. A new group of 14 experts judged scenarios presented in two media (visual, written) (Phase 2). Expert detection accuracy rates of 61% for the visual medium and 56% for the written medium were not significantly different, F (1, 13) = .44, p = .52. For Phase 3 of the study, a training development guide of heuristics was developed and eight different experts in the threat detection domain subjectively rated the heuristics for their importance and relevance in training novices. Nine heuristics were included in the training guide, and overall, experts gave all heuristics consistently high ratings for importance and relevance. The results of this study can be used to improve accuracy rates in the threat detection domain and other populations: 1) the soldier, 2) the average U.S. citizen, and 3) employees of the Transportation Security Administration. Advisors/Committee Members: Smith-Jackson, Tonya L. (committeechair), Babski-Reeves, Kari L. (committee member), Cuqlock-Knopp, V. Grayson (committee member), Kalb, Joel T. (committee member), Winchester, Woodrow W. III (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: covert mischievous intentions; threat detection; urban environment; MOUT; judgment and decision making; nonverbal behavior

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APA (6th Edition):

Myles, K. (2009). Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments. (Doctoral Dissertation). Virginia Tech. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10919/28422

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Myles, Kimberly. “Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments.” 2009. Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Tech. Accessed January 25, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/28422.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Myles, Kimberly. “Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments.” 2009. Web. 25 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Myles K. Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2009. [cited 2020 Jan 25]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/28422.

Council of Science Editors:

Myles K. Activity-Based Target Acquisition Methods for Use in Urban Environments. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/28422


Virginia Tech

2. Davis, Thomas Wayne. Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition.

Degree: PhD, Industrial and Systems Engineering, 2006, Virginia Tech

The attrition rate of enlistees in basic combat training is of particular concern to all Branches of the military due to the high cost associated with recruiting and training a new enlistee. Each year the military loses hundreds of millions of dollars invested in enlistees whom never make it to their first duty station. Investigators have extensively examined the impact of physiological injuries on the rate of enlistee discharge from basic combat training. Also, investigators have reported that alcoholism, adjustment disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders were among the leading hospital discharge diagnostic categories for enlistees during the 1990s; especially, within the first six-months of service. Additionally, investigators have reported that the transition process from civilian to military in basic combat training tends to be very stressful and anxiety provoking for enlistees. However, little data has been gathered to assess the relationship of enlisteesâ physiological and perceived stress levels and their attrition rate. A study was conducted of 155 soldiers during their nine-week basic combat training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Salivary amylase testing was used as an objective measure of physiological stress, and the Multiple Affects Adjective CheckList Revised (MACCL-R) was use as a subjective measure of perceived stress. It was hypothesized that enlistees with higher levels of stress would also have a higher level of depression and hostility resulting in performance degradation. The results of linear regression analyses and multivariate pairwise correlation showed a statistically significant positive relationship among perceived stress, hostility and depression levels. Additionally, the analyses showed that for the soldiers participating in this study, coping style moderated their perceived stress experience. Those participants who were able to modify their coping mechanism to meet the physically and mentally demanding challenges of basic combat training tended to be more confident in successfully completing training. Moreover, they were less likely to receive disciplinary action. The military training command has requested follow up studies to expand upon this current study to encompass the various training cycles over a one-year time period. Advisors/Committee Members: Lockhart, Thurmon E. (committeechair), Cuqlock-Knopp, V. Grayson (committee member), Winchester, Woodrow W. III (committee member), Kalb, Joel T. (committee member), Babski-Reeves, Kari L. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Attrition; Multiple Affects Adjective Check List Revised; Coping Mechanism; Confidence; Stress; Performance; Basic Combat Training; Depression; Hostility

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Davis, T. W. (2006). Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition. (Doctoral Dissertation). Virginia Tech. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10919/26500

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Davis, Thomas Wayne. “Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition.” 2006. Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Tech. Accessed January 25, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/26500.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Davis, Thomas Wayne. “Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition.” 2006. Web. 25 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Davis TW. Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2006. [cited 2020 Jan 25]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/26500.

Council of Science Editors:

Davis TW. Effects of Stress, Coping Style, and Confidence on Basic Combat Training Performance, Discipline, and Attrition. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2006. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/26500


Virginia Tech

3. Perala, Chuck H. Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement.

Degree: PhD, Industrial and Systems Engineering, 2006, Virginia Tech

Currently in the United States, Active Noise Reduction (ANR) headphones cannot be tested and labeled as hearing protection devices (HPDs) due to inherent limitations with the existing psychophysical headphone testing standard, real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT). This research focused on the use of a standard, for physical, microphone-in-real-ear testing, (MIRE, ANSI S12.42-1995), to determine if MIRE may be appropriately used to measure the total attenuation (i.e., passive + active) of ANR headphones. The REAT â Method B, Subject-Fit protocol,â ANSI S12.6-1997(R2002), was also used to assess passive attenuation (and used for comparison with the MIRE data), as this is the current standard for passive Headphone attenuation testing. The MIRE protocol currently does not specify a standardized location for measurement microphone placement. Prior research is mixed as to the potential benefits and shortcomings of placing the measurement microphone outside versus inside the ear canal. This study captured and compared acoustic spectral data at three different microphone locations: in concha, in ear canal-shallow depth, and in ear canal-deep depth (with a probe tube microphone positioned near the tympanic membrane), using human test participants and five ANR headphones of differing design. Results indicate that the MIRE protocol may be used to supplant the REAT protocol for the measurement of passive attenuation, although differences were observed at the lowest-tested frequency of 125 Hz. Microphone placement analysis revealed no significant difference among the three locations specified, with a noted caveat for the probe tube microphone location at the highest tested frequency of 8000 Hz. Overall findings may be useful to standards-making committees for evaluating a viable solution and standardized method for testing and labeling ANR headphones for use as hearing protection devices. Microphone placement results may assist the practitioner in determining where to place measurement microphones to best suit their particular needs when using MIRE. Discussion includes an in-depth interpretation of the data, comparisons within and between each protocol, and recommendations for further avenues to explore based on the data presented. Advisors/Committee Members: Casali, John Gordon (committeechair), Lancaster, Jeff A. (committee member), Kalb, Joel T. (committee member), Kleiner, Brian M. (committee member), Haas, Ellen (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: active noise reduction; HPD testing; Microphone placement; REAT vs. MIRE; ANR

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Perala, C. H. (2006). Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement. (Doctoral Dissertation). Virginia Tech. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10919/27053

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Perala, Chuck H. “Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement.” 2006. Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Tech. Accessed January 25, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10919/27053.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Perala, Chuck H. “Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement.” 2006. Web. 25 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Perala CH. Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2006. [cited 2020 Jan 25]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/27053.

Council of Science Editors:

Perala CH. Active noise reduction headphone measurement: Comparison of physical and psychophysical protocols and effects of microphone placement. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Virginia Tech; 2006. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10919/27053

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