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You searched for +publisher:"Vanderbilt University" +contributor:("Todd Edwards"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Vanderbilt University

1. Xie, Wei. Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning.

Degree: PhD, Computer Science, 2018, Vanderbilt University

Modern scientific investigations have increasingly relied upon the expanded collection and analysis of data (“big data”). In the genetics community, there is evidence to suggest that increased statistical power can be achieved when genomic and phenotype data are shared beyond their initial points of collection and combined with other resources. In recognition of this opportunity, numerous initiatives such as the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) have been established to facilitate the dissemination of such data to a wide array of potential users. Meanwhile, the sensitive nature of genome and phenotype data, has raised tremendous privacy concerns due to risks such as revealing personal identity and sensitive disease information. Heated discussion over genetic privacy has led the community to act conservatively in terms of data sharing by restricting data access. This dissertation begins with the introduction of novel methods and findings to breach the privacy of individuals to whom genomic data corresponds. In particular, this dissertation focuses on statistical inference methods to detect when an individual has participated in a genomic study, with a subsequent unveiling of their exact phenotype (disease status or quantitative traits), using publicly accessible information. Next, we recognize that novel technical solutions could help thwart such attacks. Specifically, this dissertation introduces a collection of cryptographic methods to protect patient privacy while supporting common statistical and machine learning models widely used in genetics (such as meta-analysis, logistic regression). It is well-known that cryptographic solutions often incur intense computation and are significantly slower than non-secure models. This is problematic because it limits the likelihood that such methods would be considered plausible for real world adoption. Thus, as a final contribution, this dissertation proposes novel algorithms to accelerate cryptography-based machine learning. Specifically, this dissertation develops several distributed optimization methods to significantly accelerate privacy-preserving distributed machine learning and validates their efficiency and accuracy extensively on large-scale datasets. Such works bridge the gap between distributed machine learning, optimization, and cryptography, and could act as drop-in replacement for many privacy-preserving methods proposed in genetic and machine learning research. Advisors/Committee Members: Douglas Fisher (committee member), Todd Edwards (committee member), Aniruddha Gokhale (committee member), Nancy Cox (committee member), Bradley Malin (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: meta-analysis; cryptography; Privacy-preserving machine learning; GWAS; Genomic privacy; distributed optimization

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APA (6th Edition):

Xie, W. (2018). Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning. (Doctoral Dissertation). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1803/15381

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Xie, Wei. “Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1803/15381.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Xie, Wei. “Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning.” 2018. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Xie W. Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2018. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/15381.

Council of Science Editors:

Xie W. Privacy Leaks and Efficient Countermeasures for Human Genetics and Machine Learning. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/15381


Vanderbilt University

2. Hollister, Brittany Marie. Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans.

Degree: PhD, Human Genetics, 2017, Vanderbilt University

Understanding the genetic and environmental factors contributing to blood pressure is an important step in elucidating the causes of hypertension, a disease of high blood pressure. African Americans experience the highest burden of hypertension in the United States, however little is known about the genetic factors contributing to blood pressure in African Americans, despite a high estimated heritability. Furthermore, current large scale studies of genetic variants contributing to blood pressure in African Americans do not include socioeconomic status (SES) information, in spite of a strong association between SES and blood pressure. To examine the potential interactions between SES and genetic variants contributing to blood pressure, a hospital-based population with electronic health records was used. Prior to conducting genetic analysis, several algorithms were developed to extract SES information from electronic health records (EHR). These algorithms extracted occupation, retirement, education level, unemployment, homelessness, Medicaid, and uninsured status with high accuracy. With the extracted education information, interactions between genetic variants contributing to blood pressure in African Americans and education were examined. No statistically significant interactions were observed. Some novel statistically significant and suggestive associations between genetic variants and blood pressure were observed. One suggestive interaction between a genetic variant and education level affecting blood pressure was detected. These results indicate that exploring interactions between SES data extracted from EHRs and genetic variants is possible on a large scale. Advisors/Committee Members: Todd Edwards (committee member), Derek Griffith (committee member), Dana Crawford (committee member), Amy Non (committee member), Melinda Aldrich (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: African Americans; genetic; socioeconomic status; blood pressure

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Hollister, B. M. (2017). Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans. (Doctoral Dissertation). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1803/13798

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hollister, Brittany Marie. “Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1803/13798.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hollister, Brittany Marie. “Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans.” 2017. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Hollister BM. Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2017. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/13798.

Council of Science Editors:

Hollister BM. Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status on Blood Pressure in African Americans. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/13798


Vanderbilt University

3. Glenn, Kimberly Renee. The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes.

Degree: PhD, Epidemiology, 2014, Vanderbilt University

EPIDEMIOLOGY The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes Kimberly R. Glenn Dissertation under the direction of Professor Loren Lipworth Individuals with diabetes have a two-fold relative risk of death compared to those without diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Physical activity has been recognized for its influence on both CVD risk and all-cause mortality (mortality) in the context of diabetes. However, most of the studies that have examined physical activity and CVD risk or mortality were conducted among predominantly white or male populations with a low prevalence or absence of CVD risk factors. Our study evaluated the independent associations between race, physical activity, sedentary time, and CVD risk or mortality among a racially-diverse population of diabetic men and women of generally low-socioeconomic status. Additionally, we examined whether these associations varied across levels of body mass index (BMI). Participants for all analyses were selected from among Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Analyses of the association between physical activity, sedentary time and mortality were conducted among 15,645 black and white SCCS participants with diabetes. Participants with diabetes at enrollment who were 65 years old or greater on or before January 1, 2008 (“Medicare” group), and/or SCCS participants with diabetes at cohort enrollment recruited in Tennessee under the age of 65 (“TN HDDS” group) were included in analyses of the association between physical activity, sedentary time, and CVD. Incidence rates were age-adjusted and Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality and CVD risk in relation to race, physical activity and sedentary time. Interaction terms were added to the models to determine whether obesity, as measured by BMI, modified these relationships. During follow-up (median follow-up time: 6.2 years), 2,370 participants died of any cause. However, decreased physical activity and increased sedentary time were positively associated with mortality among all SCCS participants with diabetes (highest vs. lowest quartile of physical activity: HR, 0.64; 95% CI: [0.56-0.72]; highest vs. lowest quartile of sedentary time: HR, 1.25; 95% CI: [1.11-1.40]). Participants in the “Medicare” group (n = 1,880) and “TN HDDS” group (n = 498) had age-adjusted rates for CVD events and CVD-related deaths of 154.4 and 91.1 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Race, physical activity and sedentary time were not associated with CVD risk in either population. Additionally, differences in body mass index did not modify the associations between physical activity, sedentary time, and CVD in either group (p-for interactions = 0.77 and 0.33, respectively). Though a clear, causal relationship was not observed between physical activity, sedentary time, and CVD… Advisors/Committee Members: Raquel Villegas (committee member), Marie Griffin (committee member), Chandra Osborn (committee member), James Christopher Slaughter (committee member), Todd Edwards (committee member), William Blot (Committee Chair), Loren Lipworth (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: low income; southeastern; diabetes; sedentary; physical activity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Glenn, K. R. (2014). The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes. (Doctoral Dissertation). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1803/12761

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Glenn, Kimberly Renee. “The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1803/12761.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Glenn, Kimberly Renee. “The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes.” 2014. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Glenn KR. The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2014. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/12761.

Council of Science Editors:

Glenn KR. The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity in the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events and Mortality among a Low-Income Population with Diabetes. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1803/12761

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