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You searched for +publisher:"Vanderbilt University" +contributor:("Stephen D. Benning"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Vanderbilt University

1. Essex, Brian George. The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice.

Degree: PhD, Psychology, 2011, Vanderbilt University

This dissertation aims to investigate the neural mechanisms of intertemporal and risky economic choices and the relationships between choice preferences and impulsivity. Previous research has revealed a role for the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) in both risky and intertemporal choices and has revealed a role for the Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) in intertemporal choices. However, many questions regarding the functions of these regions during choice remain unanswered. In order to better understand the role of these regions, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation was used to disrupt functioning in the DLPFC or PPC before individuals completed monetary choice tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that disruption of either the right DLPFC or right PPC led to increased choice of better immediate but worse long-term options on an intertemporal choice task; these results were observed both for choices involving gains and choices involving losses. While disruption of the DLPFC led to a general shift in preference, the effects of disrupting the PPC depended on the relative value of the two options. In Experiment 2, disruption of either side of the DLPFC led to increased choice of riskier options with larger possible gains on a task without losses; this effect was dependent upon the probability level of obtaining the gain. The pattern of results across the two experiments suggests that during choice, the DLPFC is involved in valuation of options and ascribes different values to options than do other brain regions, whereas the PPC is involved in cognitive control. Experiment 3 investigated the association of individual differences in choice preferences for delayed and risky incentives with individual differences in impulsivity. No strong relationships were observed, indicating that impulsivity as measured on self-report scales has little relationship with behavior on choice tasks. Understanding the neural mechanisms of economic choices will not only elucidate how consumers make economic decisions, but will also help reveal the mechanisms by which humans and other animals make choices more broadly. Advisors/Committee Members: David H. Zald (chair), Paige Marta Skiba (committee member), Stephen D. Benning (committee member), Rene Marois (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Intertemporal Choice; Decision Making; Risk; Posterior Parietal Cortex

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APA (6th Edition):

Essex, B. G. (2011). The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice. (Doctoral Dissertation). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-08292011-132802/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Essex, Brian George. “The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice.” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University. Accessed December 07, 2019. http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-08292011-132802/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Essex, Brian George. “The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice.” 2011. Web. 07 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Essex BG. The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2011. [cited 2019 Dec 07]. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-08292011-132802/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Essex BG. The Neural Mechanisms of Intertemporal and Risky Choice. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Vanderbilt University; 2011. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-08292011-132802/ ;

2. Heritage, Allan James. Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing.

Degree: MA, Psychology, 2012, Vanderbilt University

The response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy states that psychopaths' inability to adapt their behavior to changing circumstances results from a reduced ability to process peripheral cues in the midst of a dominant response. However, other research suggests that psychopathy may be related to more widespread cognitive processing deficits. This study examined the relationship between psychopathic traits, stimulus and response processing, response modulation, and error monitoring using a lexical decision stop signal task. Processing of the go stimulus was measured using the P3 ERP component and processing of the stop signal was measured using the N1 and P3 components. Processing of errors was examined using the ERN. Participants high in impulsive antisociality (IA) showed no differences in P3 amplitude following the go stimulus but did show reduced ERN amplitude after lexical decision and SS errors, indicating a deficit in their ability to recognize when errors were made. They also show reduced N1 amplitude following SS indicating reduced processing of this cue. Participants' N1 amplitude significantly mediated the relationship between IA and the ERN following SS errors, and that both the N1 to the SS and the ERN following SS errors mediated the relationship between IA and SSRT. Thus, response modulation deficits in the impulsive-antisocial factor of psychopathy lead to deficits in both behavioral inhibition and error monitoring. Advisors/Committee Members: Geoffrey F. Woodman (committee member), David H. Zald (committee member), Stephen D. Benning (chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Psychopathy; Response Modulation; Error Processing; ERPs

…adults screened from the Vanderbilt University emergency room (N = 1258) who… …Vanderbilt University IRB. 13 CHAPTER III Results Lexical Decision Stop Signal (LDSS)… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Heritage, A. J. (2012). Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing. (Masters Thesis). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06042012-151040/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Heritage, Allan James. “Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing.” 2012. Masters Thesis, Vanderbilt University. Accessed December 07, 2019. http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06042012-151040/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Heritage, Allan James. “Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing.” 2012. Web. 07 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Heritage AJ. Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Vanderbilt University; 2012. [cited 2019 Dec 07]. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06042012-151040/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Heritage AJ. Response modulation deficits in psychopathy: evidence from stimulus and response processing. [Masters Thesis]. Vanderbilt University; 2012. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06042012-151040/ ;


Vanderbilt University

3. Armstrong, Thomas Richard. Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues.

Degree: MA, Psychology, 2009, Vanderbilt University

The present study examines the extent to which attentional biases in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are specific to disgust or fear cues, as well as the components of attention involved. Eye tracking was used to provide greater sensitivity and specificity than afforded by traditional reaction time measures of attention. Participants high (HCF; n = 23) and low (LCF; n = 25) in symptoms of contamination-based OCD were presented with disgusted, fearful, or happy faces paired with neutral faces for 3 s trials. Evidence of both vigilance and maintenance-based biases for threat was found. The high group oriented attention to fearful faces but not disgusted faces compared to the low group. However, the high group maintained attention on both disgusted and fearful expressions compared to the low group, a pattern consistent across the 3 s trials. The implications of these findings for conceptualizing emotional factors that moderate attentional biases in contamination-based OCD are discussed Advisors/Committee Members: Stephen D. Benning (committee member), Bunmi O. Olatunji (committee member), David H. Zald (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: attention; anxiety disorders; eye movements

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Armstrong, T. R. (2009). Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues. (Masters Thesis). Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06102009-134500/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Armstrong, Thomas Richard. “Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues.” 2009. Masters Thesis, Vanderbilt University. Accessed December 07, 2019. http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06102009-134500/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Armstrong, Thomas Richard. “Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues.” 2009. Web. 07 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Armstrong TR. Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Vanderbilt University; 2009. [cited 2019 Dec 07]. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06102009-134500/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Armstrong TR. Orienting and maintenance of gaze in contamination-based OCD: biases for disgust and fear cues. [Masters Thesis]. Vanderbilt University; 2009. Available from: http://etd.library.vanderbilt.edu/available/etd-06102009-134500/ ;

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