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You searched for +publisher:"University of Vermont" +contributor:("Benjamin Littenberg"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Vermont

1. Kelley, Kairn Stetler. Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children.

Degree: PhD, Clinical and Translational Science, 2017, University of Vermont

Dichotic tests evaluate binaural integration through simultaneous presentation of different stimuli to each ear of a listener who has normal hearing sensitivity in both ears. Dichotic listening deficits may lead to problems with language, communication, reading, or academic performance. If accurately identified, dichotic deficits may be treatable with listening training or managed with accommodation. However, it is not clear which of several commercially-available dichotic test recordings are best for audiologists to use when assessing binaural integration in children. Literature review revealed limited evidence of reliability, accuracy, usefulness, or value for dichotic tests applied to children. Of 11 dichotic tests identified, five reported some evidence of test-retest reliability. Correlation between results on repeated administration was moderate to good (r=0.59 to 0.92). Evidence of accuracy was identified for 5 tests but was not generalizable due to significant limitations in study design. No evidence was found to either support or dispute claims of usefulness or value. Since reliability is a necessary prerequisite for good test performance, we sought to directly compare test-retest reliability for three dichotic measures: SCAN-3 Competing Words (CW), Musiek's Double Dichotic Digits (DD-M), and Bergen Dichotic Listening Test with Consonant-Vowel Syllables (CV-B). Sixty English-speaking children, 7-14 years old with normal hearing, had a single study-visit during which each test was administered twice. Changes on retest were compared to binomial model predictions, summarized by within-subject standard deviation (Sw), and compared among tests. Correlates of variance were explored. All 3 tests had reliability within bounds predicted by binomial model. Forty-item scores were more reliable (Sw=5%) than those based on 20-30 items (Sw=6-8%). No associations between participant characteristics and reliability were found. CW and DD-M were evaluated for evidence of agreement and decision consistency. Although participants were rank ordered similarly by right ear (ρ = 0.58), left ear (ρ = 0.51) and total (ρ = 0.73) scores, the tests did not agree on ranking by inter-aural asymmetry (ρ =0.18). CW and DD-M did not agree on direction of ear advantage (κ = 0.01, p = 0.93) and had poor agreement on which children displayed dichotic deficits (κ = 0.22, p < 0.01). DD identified significantly more participants with deficits (n=18) than CW (n=3) (p < 0.001). Although dichotic procedures show moderate reliability, their precision is limited. Assessment of their accuracy is limited by the absence of a widely-accepted gold standard reference test, but two commonly used tests failed to agree on which children had deficits. The data do not yet support routine clinical use of dichotic tests of binaural integration with children. Additional research is needed to determine if there are any conditions under which dichotic procedures demonstrate usefulness or value. Advisors/Committee Members: Benjamin Littenberg.

Subjects/Keywords: auditory perceptual disorders; dichotic listening tests; diganosis; reproducibility; speech audiometry; technology assessment; Speech Pathology and Audiology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kelley, K. S. (2017). Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Vermont. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/707

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kelley, Kairn Stetler. “Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Vermont. Accessed August 18, 2019. https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/707.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kelley, Kairn Stetler. “Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children.” 2017. Web. 18 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Kelley KS. Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. [cited 2019 Aug 18]. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/707.

Council of Science Editors:

Kelley KS. Dichotic Listening Test Performance In Children. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/707


University of Vermont

2. Tarleton, Emily. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.

Degree: PhD, Clinical and Translational Science, 2017, University of Vermont

Research has focused extensively on the negative health effects of inadequate Mg intake, but the extent of the problem of deficiency deserves further exploration. The notion that U.S. adults consume an inadequate amount of magnesium, leading to increased risk for chronic diseases such as depression, is plausible. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), which are large, cross-sectional, population-based data sets that assess the health and nutritional status of U.S. adults and children, indicate over half the adult population does not consume adequate amounts of magnesium based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) established by the Institute of Medicine. Using 2007 to 2010 NHANES data we found 54% of adults do not meet the EAR, confirming results from earlier surveys. As a result of this finding, a review exploring the factors impacting magnesium consumption over time and the adequacy of current intake in U.S. adults was conducted. Changes in agricultural processes that reduce magnesium levels in crops combined with the increasing consumption of processed foods containing little to no magnesium have led to a decrease in mean daily intake by 200-300 mg per day over the past century. However, population-based studies show a steady and consistent recovery in magnesium intake in U.S. adults over the past several decades. A simple, rapid, accurate test for whole body Mg status is lacking and, although population-based studies have limitations, continued monitoring of Mg consumption is essential to determine whether this positive trend continues. In the meantime, since the health consequences of inadequate magnesium are well established, there are no reported cases of hypermagnesemia from food alone, and magnesium is found in healthy foods adults should consume more often, there are few reasons not to encourage increased magnesium intake. Cross-sectional and prospective trials in other countries report an association between magnesium intake and symptoms of depression. Depression is a chronic disease affecting a significant portion of the U.S. population. Magnesium plays a role in many of the pathways involved in the pathophysiology of depression and is found in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Depression and magnesium are both associated with systemic inflammation. Current treatment options for depression are limited by efficacy, cost, availability, side effects, and acceptability to patients. As a result of the need for additional treatment options, interest in the role of magnesium in modulating depressive symptoms has grown. We used the NHANES 2007-2010 data to examine this relationship in U.S. adults and found a significant association between very low magnesium intake and symptoms of depression (RR=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.30; P=0.03). Whether inadequate magnesium leads to increased risk for depression or depression results in poor dietary intake is not known. To test whether supplementation with over-the-counter… Advisors/Committee Members: Benjamin Littenberg, Gail Rose.

Subjects/Keywords: depression; magnesium; Nutrition; Psychiatric and Mental Health

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Tarleton, E. (2017). Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Vermont. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/797

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Tarleton, Emily. “Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Vermont. Accessed August 18, 2019. https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/797.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Tarleton, Emily. “Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.” 2017. Web. 18 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Tarleton E. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. [cited 2019 Aug 18]. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/797.

Council of Science Editors:

Tarleton E. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/797


University of Vermont

3. Tarleton, Emily. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.

Degree: PhD, Clinical and Translational Science, 2017, University of Vermont

Research has focused extensively on the negative health effects of inadequate Mg intake, but the extent of the problem of deficiency deserves further exploration. The notion that U.S. adults consume an inadequate amount of magnesium, leading to increased risk for chronic diseases such as depression, is plausible. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), which are large, cross-sectional, population-based data sets that assess the health and nutritional status of U.S. adults and children, indicate over half the adult population does not consume adequate amounts of magnesium based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) established by the Institute of Medicine. Using 2007 to 2010 NHANES data we found 54% of adults do not meet the EAR, confirming results from earlier surveys. As a result of this finding, a review exploring the factors impacting magnesium consumption over time and the adequacy of current intake in U.S. adults was conducted. Changes in agricultural processes that reduce magnesium levels in crops combined with the increasing consumption of processed foods containing little to no magnesium have led to a decrease in mean daily intake by 200-300 mg per day over the past century. However, population-based studies show a steady and consistent recovery in magnesium intake in U.S. adults over the past several decades. A simple, rapid, accurate test for whole body Mg status is lacking and, although population-based studies have limitations, continued monitoring of Mg consumption is essential to determine whether this positive trend continues. In the meantime, since the health consequences of inadequate magnesium are well established, there are no reported cases of hypermagnesemia from food alone, and magnesium is found in healthy foods adults should consume more often, there are few reasons not to encourage increased magnesium intake. Cross-sectional and prospective trials in other countries report an association between magnesium intake and symptoms of depression. Depression is a chronic disease affecting a significant portion of the U.S. population. Magnesium plays a role in many of the pathways involved in the pathophysiology of depression and is found in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Depression and magnesium are both associated with systemic inflammation. Current treatment options for depression are limited by efficacy, cost, availability, side effects, and acceptability to patients. As a result of the need for additional treatment options, interest in the role of magnesium in modulating depressive symptoms has grown. We used the NHANES 2007-2010 data to examine this relationship in U.S. adults and found a significant association between very low magnesium intake and symptoms of depression (RR=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.30; P=0.03). Whether inadequate magnesium leads to increased risk for depression or depression results in poor dietary intake is not known. To test whether supplementation with over-the-counter… Advisors/Committee Members: Benjamin Littenberg, Gail Rose.

Subjects/Keywords: depression; magnesium; Nutrition; Psychiatric and Mental Health

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Tarleton, E. (2017). Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Vermont. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/915

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Tarleton, Emily. “Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Vermont. Accessed August 18, 2019. https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/915.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Tarleton, Emily. “Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults.” 2017. Web. 18 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Tarleton E. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. [cited 2019 Aug 18]. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/915.

Council of Science Editors:

Tarleton E. Magnesium Intake and Depression in U.S. Adults. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Vermont; 2017. Available from: https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/graddis/915

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