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You searched for +publisher:"University of Toronto" +contributor:("Brym, Robert"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Toronto

1. Slavina, Anna. Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture.

Degree: PhD, 2019, University of Toronto

This dissertation addresses the need for a more nuanced understanding of political engagement. It argues for greater attention to variation in the meaning of diverse forms of political participation cross-nationally. It also draws attention to the relationship between culture and activism. Key aspects of the literature on political participation are tested and revised. In Chapter 2, I investigate and disaggregate the broad category of non-institutional engagement. I show that, far from being a unified category of action, non-institutional engagement is made up of three distinct repertoires of activism: communicative, individualised and collective. I challenge claims that non-institutional activism is more inclusive than traditional forms of participation by measuring the relative effects of typical predictors (resources, values and contextual measures) on different repertoires of non-institutional engagement. Important distinctions emerge, pointing to the need for more nuanced definitions of political engagement and greater attention to the relationship between activism, context and individual-level social location. The relationship between engagement and national context is investigated further in Chapter 3 where I test Castells’ theory of global social movement development across a variety of countries. Castells’ theory is emblematic of broader trends in the literature that seek to identify universal pathways to mobilisation. While lending support to parts of his theory regarding online technologies, the findings suggest that national context moderates the way citizens’ dissatisfaction gets translated into engagement. Cultural factors, at the individual and contextual level, also influence the form that political participation takes. Chapter 4 advocates for a practice theory approach to the study of political behaviour. I show that distinct forms of political participation gain meaning from their location within broader repertoires of political action and from their relationship to individuals’ cultural dispositions and political preferences. In sum, political engagement is shaped by the national, political and cultural climate in which it occurs. Political practices do not have inherent, universally transposable characteristics that can be used to construct generalising typologies of engagement. To understand how people in diverse settings interact with politics, political sociologists should adopt a more nuanced understanding of political engagement as contextually and socially conditioned cultural practice. Advisors/Committee Members: Brym, Robert, Sociology.

Subjects/Keywords: Activism; Cross-national; Culture; Political action; 0626

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Slavina, A. (2019). Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Toronto. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1807/97694

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Slavina, Anna. “Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto. Accessed January 21, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/97694.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Slavina, Anna. “Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture.” 2019. Web. 21 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Slavina A. Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2019. [cited 2021 Jan 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/97694.

Council of Science Editors:

Slavina A. Repertoires of Political Action: Examining the Role of National Context and Culture. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2019. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/97694


University of Toronto

2. Zhang, Huiquan. Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis.

Degree: PhD, 2018, University of Toronto

This dissertation examines how variation in political freedom shapes individuals’ liberal attitudes and challenges existing explanations on value change. I begin by demonstrating that mainland China does not follow the path anticipated by Inglehart’s popular theory of value change, which expects protracted economic development to result in growing liberalism (Chapter 2). Many societies sharing similar economic and cultural backgrounds (such as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan) have successfully embraced liberal values. I argue that it is necessary to consider a neglected contextual factor—level of political freedom—to explain the variation. I validate this argument by comparing a wide range of societies with different economic, cultural and political contexts in Chapter 3. My analysis shows that countries with different levels of political freedom exhibit markedly different patterns of value change. Specifically, while members of politically free societies largely follow the pattern sketched by Inglehart, relatively well-educated and well- to-do people in politically unfree societies experience little value change or even express growing conservativism (compared to other demographic groups) as their societies develop economically. To explain this finding, I suggest that political regimes, especially non-free regimes manipulate cultural institutions, including the educational system, to impede value liberalization. To investigate this process, Chapter 4 compares educational reform and value change in Taiwan and mainland China since the late 1940s. These two societies share economic and cultural backgrounds but have radically different political systems. My analysis finds that the value change mechanisms in the two societies differ greatly from each other. In sum, this dissertation demonstrates that political context is critically important in shaping individual value orientations. This argument adds to existing literature on how democratic values provoke democratization by emphasizing the other side of the story: how regimes, especially non- democratic ones, actively prevent value liberalization. The educational system is an important medium through which a political system promotes its preferred ideology. The main policy implication of this dissertation is that economic growth is insufficient to generate liberal values. Political freedom is a critical prerequisite for successful democratization and a healthy civil society. Advisors/Committee Members: Brym, Robert, Sociology.

Subjects/Keywords: Comparative politics; East Asia studies; Political sociology; Public opinion; 0626

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Zhang, H. (2018). Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Toronto. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1807/82966

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Zhang, Huiquan. “Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto. Accessed January 21, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/82966.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Zhang, Huiquan. “Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis.” 2018. Web. 21 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Zhang H. Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2018. [cited 2021 Jan 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/82966.

Council of Science Editors:

Zhang H. Contextual Effects and Support for Liberalism: A Comparative Analysis. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/82966

3. Abdalrahmanalaraj, Bader. Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05.

Degree: 2011, University of Toronto

This dissertation draws attention to the interaction between insurgents and the target state as the appropriate context for explaining the motivations of suicide bombers, the rationales of the organizations that support them, and the popularity in certain societies of suicide bombing. Based mainly on data collected from 88 interviews conducted in 2006 with senior leaders of six Palestinian political organizations and close relatives and friends of a 25 percent representative sample of Palestinian suicide bombers during the second intifada, it demonstrates the following: (1) During the second intifada, changes in the political opportunity structure, especially extreme state repression, were chiefly responsible for growing public support for suicide bombing, the development of organizational rationales justifying suicide bombing, and the crystallization of suicide bombers’ motivation to act. State repression produced a widespread desire for revenge at all levels of Palestinian society. (2) Cultural forces, notably the growing popularity of fundamentalist Islam and its embodiment in the political culture of certain militant organizations, were of secondary importance in causing the spread of suicide bombing. (3) Strategic calculations (“rational choice”) aimed at speeding the liberation of occupied territory were of tertiary importance in motivating suicide bombers but they figured more prominently at the level of organizational rationales. (4) While the literature often invokes creative agency, psychopathology, and material deprivation to explain the rise of suicide bombing, little or no effect was discovered for these variables.

PhD

Advisors/Committee Members: Brym, Robert, Sociology.

Subjects/Keywords: state repression; suicide bombing; 0626

…confidentiality, each interview was uploaded to a server at the University of Toronto immediately after… …University of Toronto Department of Sociology Toronto, Canada Although students of social movements… …0026). Address correspondence to Bader Araj, Department of Sociology, University of… …Toronto, 725 Spadina Avenue, Toronto M5S 2J4, Canada. E-mail: [email protected] 284 20… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Abdalrahmanalaraj, B. (2011). Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Toronto. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1807/27569

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Abdalrahmanalaraj, Bader. “Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05.” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto. Accessed January 21, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/27569.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Abdalrahmanalaraj, Bader. “Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05.” 2011. Web. 21 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Abdalrahmanalaraj B. Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2011. [cited 2021 Jan 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/27569.

Council of Science Editors:

Abdalrahmanalaraj B. Harsh State Repression and Suicide Bombing: The Second Palestinian Intifada (Uprising), 2000-05. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Toronto; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/27569

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