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You searched for +publisher:"University of Saskatchewan" +contributor:("Leighton, F."). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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University of Saskatchewan

1. Vander Wal, Eric. Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission.

Degree: 2011, University of Saskatchewan

Many mammals are social. The most basic social behaviour is when the actions of one conspecific are directed toward another, what we call the ‘dyadic interaction’. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors may affect an individual’s propensity to interact with other members of a population. I used a social cervid, elk (Cervus elaphus), as a model species to test the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of sociality on dyadic interactions. Dyadic interactions not only form the basis for social structure and information transfer within a population, but are also routes of pathogen transmission. My objective in this thesis was thus twofold: to improve our understanding of sociobiology, but also to gain insight into how sociality may underlie the transmission of communicable wildlife disease. I used a hierarchical, autecological approach from DNA, through individual, dyad, group, subpopulation, and ultimately population to explore the effects of intrinsic factors (e.g., sex and pairwise genetic relatedness) and extrinsic factors (e.g., season, conspecific density, habitat, and elk group size) on sociality. Elk in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP), Manitoba, Canada, are exposed to the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; TB); however, spatial variation in apparent disease prevalence suggests that TB can only persist in one subpopulation within the Park. Using the natural RMNP system and a captive elk herd that I manipulated, I explored factors that influence interaction rates and durations (as a proxy for pathogen transmission) among elk. Sexual segregation in elk results in seasonal and sex-based differences in interaction rate and duration; with interactions peaking in autumn-winter for both sexes. Female-female dyads interact more frequently than male-male dyads. However, male-male dyads interact for longer durations than do female-female dyads. Interaction rate and duration did not covary with pairwise relatedness. Conspecific density also had sex-specific results for interaction rate and duration. Whereas male-male dyadic interaction rates increase with density, female-female dyads increase until they reach a threshold and subsequently reduce their interaction rates at high density. I observed density dependence in interaction rates in experimental trials and from field data. Furthermore, social networks revealed that social familiarity (i.e., heterogeneity of interactions) can be both frequency- and- density dependent depending on the strength of the relationship (i.e., number of repeat interactions). Density also affected the likelihood that an interaction would occur; however, this was modified by vegetation association used by elk. My results reveal several ecological and evolutionary implications for information transfer and pathogen transmission. In particular, I show that seasonal inter-sex routes of transfer may exist and that transfer is likely to be density-dependent. Finally, I conclude that such transfer is modified by available resources. Advisors/Committee Members: Messier, François, McLoughlin, Philip D., Paquet, Paul C., Leighton, F. (Ted), Neal, B. (Dick), Shury, Todd, Merrill, Evelyn H..

Subjects/Keywords: Spatial scale; Sexual segregation; Social network analysis; Sociality; Pathogen transmission; Riding Mountain National Park; Relatedness; Behaviour; Bovine tuberculosis; Habitat; Information flow; Interaction rate; Isocline; Cervus elaphus; Mycobacterium bovis; Landscape genetics; Wildlife management; Group size; Frequency dependence; Density dependence; Disease; Elk

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Vander Wal, E. (2011). Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission. (Thesis). University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-07182011-081159

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Vander Wal, Eric. “Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission.” 2011. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan. Accessed January 21, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-07182011-081159.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Vander Wal, Eric. “Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission.” 2011. Web. 21 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Vander Wal E. Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 2011. [cited 2020 Jan 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-07182011-081159.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Vander Wal E. Sex, friends, and disease: social ecology of elk (Cervus elaphus) with implications for pathogen transmission. [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-07182011-081159

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Tessaro, Stacy Victor. A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada.

Degree: 1987, University of Saskatchewan

Studies were conducted on bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in hybrid bison and other wildlife species in and around Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP), and in wood bison in the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary. Aerial surveys provided total counts of 4,661 bison in March, 1984, and 4,582 bison in March, 1985, in WBNP. Compared to previous surveys, these numbers indicate that the bison population is declining. Surveys showed that bison leave the park on at least three corridors, including the southwest corner of the park adjacent to the Fort Vermilion, Alberta, agricultural zone. During the same period, a survey of the east side of the Slave River Lowlands found 370 hybrid bison. This population also has declined. The complete or partial remains of 164 bison were found in and around WBNP between June, 1983 and August, 1985. Of the 72 carcasses suitable for analyses, 18 (25%) had evidence of brucellosis and 15 (21%) had tuberculosis, with two of these cases having concurrent infections. B. abortus biotypes 1 and 2, including a urease-negative strain of biotype 1, were isolated from 11 bison and 7 others had antibody titres to B. abortus. Tissues of 7 bison were culture-positive for M. bovis and 8 other bison had granulomatous lesions but the bacterium was not isolated. The prevalence estimates of the two diseases in the sample were conservative because of the limitations imposed by opportunistic sampling. The 95% confidence intervals for the prevalence of the diseases in the bison population in and around WBNP were 15.54 36.60% for brucellosis and 12.16 - 32.02% for tuberculosis based on this sample. The diseases were found in bison outside of the park near the three recognized corridors of trans-boundary movement. Infection with B. abortus was associated with severe arthritis in three bison and a subcutaneous abscess in a fourth bison. Only 9 (33%) of the 27 adult female bison in the collection were pregnant. Lesions produced by M. bovis infection in bison were similar to those reported in cattle, ranging from focal granulomatous lymphadenitis to generalized, multisystemic disease. Three of four bison killed by wolves in WBNP had extensive tuberculosis, suggesting an association between the disease and predation. Hunters killed, butchered and utilized 56 of the bison in the sample; 15 (27%) of these bison had brucellosis and 9 (16%) others had tuberculosis, indicating a risk of disease transmission from bison to people. Other pathologic conditions found in the bison were documented. Postmortem examination, histology and bacteriology did not detect the presence of brucellosis or tuberculosis in 30 wood bison killed in the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary. Serological tests on these and an additional 21 wood bison from the same location were all negative for antibodies to B. abortus. Statistical analyses and epidemiological information indicate that this population of wood bison is free of the two diseases. Because this population is near WBNP and because it is expanding both… Advisors/Committee Members: Wobeser, G. A,, Yates, W. D. G., Thomson, R. G., Stemshorn, B. W., Saunders, J. R., Rigby, C. E., Nielsen, N. O., Mills, J. H. L., Leighton, F. A., Doige, C. E., Bellamy, J. E. C..
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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Tessaro, S. V. (1987). A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada. (Thesis). University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-09182012-132948

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Tessaro, Stacy Victor. “A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada.” 1987. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan. Accessed January 21, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-09182012-132948.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Tessaro, Stacy Victor. “A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada.” 1987. Web. 21 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Tessaro SV. A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 1987. [cited 2020 Jan 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-09182012-132948.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Tessaro SV. A descriptive and epizootiologic study of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis in bison in Northern Canada. [Thesis]. University of Saskatchewan; 1987. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-09182012-132948

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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