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University of Pretoria

1. Hlokwe, Motlatso Tiny. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data.

Degree: PhD, Veterinary Tropical Diseases, 2014, University of Pretoria

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which are bacteria that infect both domestic and wildlife host species. The zoonotic nature of the disease is of great concern globally. Over 50 million animals are infected all over the world, resulting in economic losses of approximately three billion United States dollars per year. Molecular typing techniques have greatly improved knowledge regarding the sources and modes of BTB transmission in many countries including South Africa. The current study was aimed at filling the knowledge gap regarding the epidemiology of the disease in livestock and wildlife species in the country for the purpose of effective control and management (in wildlife) as well as ultimate eradication (in livestock). Identification of a suitable typing technique for potential application in South Africa was the core purpose of the study. In an attempt to determine the manner of transmission within and between animal populations and map the geographical spread of this zoonotic disease, samples were collected from a variety of animal species throughout the country. In Chapter 2, molecular techniques (i.e. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat) were used to identify and characterize Mycobacterium bovis infecting buffaloes in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) and three epidemiologically related game reserves over a 15-year time frame. The findings demonstrated that the majority of the M. bovis infections in buffaloes were as a result of a single strain which has persisted throughout the years with spill-over to other wildlife species. Evidence of further M. bovis infections due to strains previously undetected in the park was also shown. With a view to providing a simple and reliable method suitable for studying the epidemiology of BTB in the country, we describe, in Chapter 3, how we evaluated the utility of known VNTR sequences as epidemiological markers to describe the molecular epidemiology of BTB in South Africa, with special emphasis on the Kruger National Park (KNP) where there is evidence of clonal expansion of the C8 parental cattle strain. A set of VNTR loci that provided sufficient discriminatory power for application in epidemiological studies was identified. Potential use of VNTR typing in exploring evolutionary changes was also highlighted. To further establish the genetic diversity of the isolates and study the population structure of M. bovis, the loci were used to study a larger panel of M. bovis isolates from different regions (Chapter 4). The findings showed that besides cattle, at least 16 animal species contracted the infection, and highlighted a strong evidence of intra and inter-species transmission of M. bovis. Furthermore, the study also showed that despite the fact that a national control programme for BTB is applied in commercial cattle, there is a high diversity of M. bovis persisting in the country, highlighting the importance and need for… Advisors/Committee Members: Michel, Anita Luise (advisor), Van Helden, Paul (coadvisor), Sabeta, Claude Taurai (coadvisor).

Subjects/Keywords: UCTD

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APA (6th Edition):

Hlokwe, M. T. (2014). Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Pretoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2263/56593

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hlokwe, Motlatso Tiny. “Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pretoria. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2263/56593.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hlokwe, Motlatso Tiny. “Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data.” 2014. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Hlokwe MT. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Pretoria; 2014. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/56593.

Council of Science Editors:

Hlokwe MT. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from livestock and wildlife in South Africa : genetic marker optimization and identification using whole genome sequence data. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Pretoria; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/56593

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