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You searched for +publisher:"University of Pretoria" +contributor:("Jenkins, Akinbowale Olajide"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Pretoria

1. Harris, Penelope Grace. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park.

Degree: Veterinary Tropical Diseases, 2013, University of Pretoria

Worldwide there is a growing concern of the emergence and evolution of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, which poses a threat to human and animal health. The extensive use and misuse of antimicrobials in human and veterinary clinical therapy and agricultural practices have been a major selective force for the emergence, selection, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistant genes. Commensal bacteria constitute a reservoir of resistant genes and their level of resistance is considered to be a good indicator for resistance problems to be expected in pathogens. The monitoring of the prevalence of resistance in indicator bacteria such as faecal Escherichia coli and enterococci in different human and animal populations allows the comparison of the prevalence of resistance and to detect transfer between animals and humans and vice versa. Antimicrobial resistance has however, been found in the bacteria of wildlife not exposed to antimicrobials and living in remote areas of this earth. This has implications for resistance control strategies. Previous studies on antimicrobial resistance in wildlife have yielded contrasting results, such as an almost complete absence of resistance in enterobacteria isolated from moose, deer and vole in Finland compared to a high prevalence of resistance in faecal bacteria from wild rodents living in northwest England, which are possibly due to differences in the ecological systems and the proximity to anthropogenic activities. This study further investigates the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife. A previous study conducted in the conservancy area of Kruger National Park (KNP) within South Africa showed that surface water could be a possible source of antimicrobial resistance in unexposed animal populations and that impala (Aepyceros melampus) were good sentinel animals for the documentation of antimicrobial resistance through rivers. This current study followed on this hypothesis and investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal bacteria isolated from impala and their water sources in KNP. The following four perennial river systems were selected: the Olifants, the Letaba, the Crocodile, the Sabie-Sand Rivers. Samples of river water (n=11) and faeces (n=165) were collected at 11 different sites along these rivers. Samples were directly plated and resistant colonies were selected by means of discs containing antimicrobials (direct plating method). Resistant colonies that grew in the presence of antimicrobials were cultured and identified. Isolates of E. coli (n=12), Enterobacter cloacae (n=49), Pantoea species (n=9), Enterococcus faecalis (n=59), Enterococcus faecium (n=4) and Enterococcus durans (n=64) were tested for susceptibility to a selection of commonly used veterinary antimicrobial drugs. Susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial drugs was determined by means of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using a commercial MIC test (Sensititre┬« Bovine/Porcine plate format BOP06F). Our results allow us… Advisors/Committee Members: Jenkins, Akinbowale Olajide (advisor), Van Vuuren, M. (coadvisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Bacterial pathogens; Kruger National Park; Impala; Aepyceros melampus; Escherichia coli; UCTD

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Harris, P. G. (2013). Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park. (Masters Thesis). University of Pretoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2263/37371

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Harris, Penelope Grace. “Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park.” 2013. Masters Thesis, University of Pretoria. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2263/37371.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Harris, Penelope Grace. “Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park.” 2013. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Harris PG. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2013. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/37371.

Council of Science Editors:

Harris PG. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of selected commensal bacteria isolated from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and their water sources in the Kruger National Park. [Masters Thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/37371


University of Pretoria

2. Glover, Barbara Akorfa. Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface.

Degree: MSc, Veterinary Tropical Diseases, 2014, University of Pretoria

The direct and repeated exposure to antimicrobials in domestic animals and humans has been shown to produce strong selective pressures for the maintenance of antimicrobial resistance in their enteric bacteria. Though wild animal populations are not directly exposed to antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistance has been reported in some wild animal populations. Proximity to humans has been reported to be associated with a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in wild animal populations. In this study faecal samples were screened for indicator and zoonotic bacterial organisms from primate populations (baboons and vervet monkeys) located at two primate rehabilitation centres close to the Kruger National Park, South Africa. For comparison purposes, samples were obtained from non-human primates with 3 distinct levels of exposure to humans. The 1st group had regular human contact and consisted of mostly orphaned juveniles that were fed, bathed and cuddled regularly. The 2nd group had been weaned from frequent contact with humans, but had occasional contact. The 3rd group lived in enclosures similar to their natural habitats with almost no human contact. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on all isolates using the Sensititre GPALL1F and GNX2F MIC plates (Trekds, UK). The Gram- positive isolates were tested against 22 antimicrobial drugs while the other Gram-negative bacteria were tested against 21 antimicrobial drugs all in dosages used by humans. In all, 300 fresh faecal samples were collected. Sixty enterococci, 64 Klebsiella spp., and 64 Escherichia coli/E. fergusonii strains were isolated from the baboon samples. From the vervet faecal samples 40 enterococci, 64 Klebsiella spp. and 64 E. coli/E. fergusonii strains were isolated. Over eighty percent of the Gram-negative isolates were resistant to polymyxin B and E (colistin) as well as the carbapenems with occasional resistance recorded against aminoglycosides. Eighty percent of the Gram- positives (all enterococci) were resistant to aminoglycosides, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. More than 90% of all the Gram-negative isolates were susceptible to penicillins and ╬▓-lactamase inhibitor combinations with the exception of the Salmonella spp. in which about 50% of the isolates were resistant. The highest level of antimicrobial drug resistance in the non-human primates was observed in group 1. Comparatively speaking, group 1 had 20% and 23% higher levels of resistance than group 2 and group 3 respectively. This was observed for all the antimicrobials tested, especially polymyxin B and colistin. It was also observed that antimicrobial resistance levels decreased with age; with isolates from older animals being less resistant. This resistance profile was similar in all 3 groups in both rehabilitation centers. Establishing the presence of microbial exchange between human populations and wildlife (especially primates), even in the absence of immediate disease concerns, may identify points of contact where increased… Advisors/Committee Members: Jansen van Vuuren, M. (advisor), Jenkins, Akinbowale Olajide (coadvisor).

Subjects/Keywords: UCTD

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APA (6th Edition):

Glover, B. (2014). Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface. (Masters Thesis). University of Pretoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46204

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Glover, Barbara. “Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface.” 2014. Masters Thesis, University of Pretoria. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46204.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Glover, Barbara. “Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface.” 2014. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Glover B. Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2014. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46204.

Council of Science Editors:

Glover B. Characterization and resistance profiles of selected enteric bacteria isolated from non-human primates at a wildlife-human interface. [Masters Thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46204


University of Pretoria

3. Seo, Wonhyo. The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes.

Degree: MSc, Veterinary Tropical Diseases, 2012, University of Pretoria

Rabies is an important public and veterinary health threat in South Africa. The genus Lyssavirus is composed of 12 species including classical rabies virus (RABV, genotype 1), Lagos bat virus (LBV, genotype 2), Mokola virus (MOKV, genotype 3), Duvenhage virus (DUVV, genotype 4), European bat lyssavirus type-1 and type-2 [EBLV-1 (genotype 5) and EBLV-2 (genotype 6), respectively] and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV, genotype 7). In addition, several lyssaviruses have been also recovered from Chiroptera including Aravan virus (ARAV), Khujand virus (KHUV), Irkut virus (IRKV), West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV) as well as Shimoni bat virus (SHIV). The unusual lyssaviruses (Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus and Duvenhage virus) have been identified exclusively on the African continent. The canid and mongoose rabies biotypes in genotype 1 are commonly diagnosed in the Canidae and Herpestidae species, respectively. Dog rabies is responsible for at least 90% of the human death tolls rather than by mongoose rabies biotype through case surveillance data in South Africa and this has led to the notion that canid rabies biotype is more virulent rather than mongoose rabies biotype. Therefore, this study was proposed to the difference in virulence of two rabies biotypes prevalent in South Africa. The rabies viral genome encodes five structural proteins, namely the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). Amongst the proteins, the G-protein has been found to control entry, egress and pathogenicity of RABV, and is a critical factor for death of infected cells. Several amino acid residues which drive the pathogenicity of the RABV, known as pathogenic determinants, are found on the RABV G-protein. Furthermore, the interactions between PDZ domains and PDZ-binding site (PDZ-BS), located at the carboxyl terminus of the G-protein cytoplasmic domain (Cyto-G) could be pivotal role in the determination of phenotypes depending on cellular partners recruited by the PDZ-BS of its envelope G-protein. The present study was undertaken to provide an insight into the pathogenicity of the South African RABV biotypes, namely canid and mongoose rabies biotypes. Moreover, mongoose rabies biotype recovered in a domestic dog (referred as spill over) was also included in this study. These viruses were selected to represent the two rabies biotypes based on their reactivity patterns to a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and phylogenetic analysis using the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein and the variable G-L intergenic region. In order to elucidate the pathogenicity of the selected RABV isolates, the nucleotide and amino acid homologies of the complete G-protein encoding gene and pathogenic determinants on the G-protein ectodomain were evaluated. Then, the chimeric G-protein constructs were generated by grafting the carboxyl terminal of the cytoplasmic domain in a virulent RABV CVS backbone (GenBank Acc. No: AF406694). These chimeric constructs were expressed in a recombinant lentivirus… Advisors/Committee Members: Sabeta, Claude Taurai (advisor), Jenkins, Akinbowale Olajide (coadvisor), Prehaud, Christophe (coadvisor), Lafon, Monique (coadvisor).

Subjects/Keywords: UCTD

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Seo, W. (2012). The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes. (Masters Thesis). University of Pretoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2263/31521

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Seo, Wonhyo. “The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes.” 2012. Masters Thesis, University of Pretoria. Accessed April 11, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/2263/31521.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Seo, Wonhyo. “The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes.” 2012. Web. 11 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Seo W. The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2012. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/31521.

Council of Science Editors:

Seo W. The molecular basis of pathogenicity of the glycoprotein of typical South African canid and mongoose rabies biotypes. [Masters Thesis]. University of Pretoria; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/31521

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