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You searched for +publisher:"University of Notre Dame" +contributor:("Gary E. Belovsky, Committee Member"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Notre Dame

1. Kirsten Melanie Prior. Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>.

Degree: PhD, Biological Sciences, 2011, University of Notre Dame

Global change is causing the reorganization of earth’s biota. For example, species are being moved around the globe through trade and traffic, and species are shifting their ranges in response to climate change. Interacting species will not move in concert, however, resulting in altered and novel community interactions. These rapidly-changing interactions could have large effects on biodiversity. The aims of my dissertation are to uncover the effects of range-expanding species on their recipient communities and to examine the responses of range-expanding species to altered community interactions. I studied the recent range-expansion of a phytophagous insect in the context of its community. I found that this species was undergoing increased demographic success in its introduced range. As a result, this species negatively affected the fitness of a threatened, native butterfly by reducing the foliar nutrients of their shared host plant. I then tested a leading hypothesis to explain this species demographic success. The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that range-expanding species will lose enemies in their new range and will be released from enemy control. This is the first experimental test of the ERH for a range-expanding animal species, and despite popular expectations, I found that enemy release fails in explaining this species success. I also evaluated the ERH as a general mechanism of invasion success in a variety of ecosystems and taxonomic groups. I conducted a meta-analysis of an important, overlooked assumption of the ERH, that enemies negatively affect species in their native range. I found systematic differences in native enemy effects among prey types. These results suggest that the assumption of native enemy effects should not be overlooked and that enemy release is not an equally likely explanation for the success of all invasive species. Overall, my dissertation contributes to our understanding of the community context of range expansions. It highlights that community interactions need to be incorporated into theories, predictions, and empirical studies when assessing the effects of global change on biodiversity. Also, I show that species that move over short distances, such as those undergoing climate-driven range expansions, can undergo demographic release and impact recipient communities. Advisors/Committee Members: Jessica J. Hellmann, Committee Chair, Gary E. Belovsky, Committee Member, Jason S. McLachlan, Committee Member, David M. Lodge, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: Species interactions; Global change; Parasitoids; Climate change; Range expansions; Plant-mediated interactions; Gall-formers; Phytophagous insects; Invasive species; Novel interactions; Enemy release

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Prior, K. M. (2011). Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved from https://curate.nd.edu/show/tq57np21k68

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Prior, Kirsten Melanie. “Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>.” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. Accessed March 19, 2019. https://curate.nd.edu/show/tq57np21k68.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Prior, Kirsten Melanie. “Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>.” 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2019.

Vancouver:

Prior KM. Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2011. [cited 2019 Mar 19]. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/tq57np21k68.

Council of Science Editors:

Prior KM. Novel community interactions following species' range expansions</h1>. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2011. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/tq57np21k68


University of Notre Dame

2. Ashley Kate Baldridge. Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>.

Degree: PhD, Biological Sciences, 2013, University of Notre Dame

Nonnative species engage in a suite of novel interactions in their introduced ranges, the collective outcome of which will determine their success as well as the fate of resident species. The major goal of my dissertation research is to examine how food web interactions influence long-term ecological and economic impacts of an invasive omnivore. My study system consists of the invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and its interactions with fish, aquatic plants, and snails in north temperate lakes of northern Wisconsin and Michigan. I studied aspects of intraguild predation between O. rusticus and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that were previously unknown using a combination of field surveys, video surveillance, diet reconstructions, and a controlled feeding experiment. I found that higher densities of O. rusticus increased rates of bass nest abandonment, but that consumption of crayfish by bass may overall lower abandonment. Additionally, consuming the resource pulse of bass eggs confers a growth benefit for O. rusticus. Together, these results support our field observations on why O. rusticus and M. dolomieu can coexist in abundance in north temperate lakes. I used a long-term multi-lake survey of crayfish, macrophytes, and snails, as well as germination assays, to examine the potential for natural recovery following significant declines in O. rusticus abundance. I also examined how spatial heterogeneity influences both negative impacts and recovery over time. In general, crayfish impacts are realized quickly and recovery is gradual and incomplete. The magnitude of response scales with the magnitude in crayfish change, but this relationship is influence by substrate and is taxon-specific. I developed a bioeconomic framework to evaluate which management strategies in response to O. rusticus are most likely to produce positive net economic benefits. The model simulations reveal that when prevention fails, immediate action to reduce O. rusticus will produce the greatest net economic benefit. I identified that the density-impact relationship between the invasive species and the ecosystem service has the greatest influence on model predictions. My dissertation research contributes to our understanding of how complex food web interactions influence the net impact of an invasive species. This work provides new information about an intraguild predator and prey relationship, and describes limitations and conditions for natural recovery among multiple trophic levels in lakes impacted by an invasive omnivore. Further, I developed a management tool that can be adapted and applied to a variety of systems to help make time-sensitive decisions about invasive species control. Advisors/Committee Members: Jessica J. Hellmann, Committee Member, David M. Lodge, Committee Chair, Gary E. Belovsky, Committee Member, Richard A. Jensen, Committee Member, Gary A. Lamberti, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: bioeconomics; food webs; biological invasions; management; crayfish; macrophytes; fish; intraguild predation; gastropods

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Baldridge, A. K. (2013). Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved from https://curate.nd.edu/show/2801pg1762t

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Baldridge, Ashley Kate. “Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. Accessed March 19, 2019. https://curate.nd.edu/show/2801pg1762t.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Baldridge, Ashley Kate. “Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>.” 2013. Web. 19 Mar 2019.

Vancouver:

Baldridge AK. Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2013. [cited 2019 Mar 19]. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/2801pg1762t.

Council of Science Editors:

Baldridge AK. Invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus): community impacts and potential for recovery</h1>. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2013. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/2801pg1762t


University of Notre Dame

3. Travis David Marsico. Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>.

Degree: PhD, Biological Sciences, 2008, University of Notre Dame

A key goal in ecology is to understand the factors limiting species’ distributions. Important range-limiting factors are often difficult to generalize, however, because organisms have many different life-history traits, evolutionary histories, and diverse interactions with other species. Climate is often implicated as the most important range-limiting factor in modern species distributions. Yet many species are not or not yet exhibiting range changes associated with anthropogenic climate change. A potentially important non-climatic range-limiting factor is dispersal limitation. Recently, some researchers have concluded that dispersal limitation is likely as strong a range limiting factor as climate. One way to tackle the limits to generalization is to investigate range limiting factors and patterns of range shift for well-chosen taxa in a comparative fashion to glean general principles. My research uses a comparative approach to investigate patterns of post-glacial colonization, factors involved in geographic range limitation, and species responses to future climates using genetic techniques, a field experiment, and a chamber experiment, respectively. All studies were conducted on species associated with the Garry oak ecosystem in the Pacific Northwest of North America and focused on four plant taxa: Quercus garryana var. garryana, the flagship species of the Garry oak ecosystem, and three Lomatium species, L. dissectum var. dissectum, L. nudicaule, and L. utriculatum. An overall conclusion from this dissertation is that related, co-occurring species provide an appropriate comparison for determining species- and trait-based generalization. Lomatium chloroplast genetic data suggest that abundance is important in determining the ability of long-distance seed dispersal. The field experiment shows that dispersal limitation is currently important in determining range boundaries for species no matter their regional abundance. The field experiment also shows that closely related species may differ in their competitive abilities and responses to competitors/facilitators. My genetic survey on Q. garryana provides evidence that generalizations about range changes in oaks as a taxonomic group seem to be relatively universal, no matter the historical landscape conditions. The chamber experiment provides evidence that some responses to global change will be unpredictable, making certain generalizations difficult. Given these findings, humans may consider accelerating species migration through purposeful translocation outside species’ ranges to overcome dispersal barriers. Advisors/Committee Members: Jessica J. Hellmann, Committee Chair, David M. Lodge, Committee Member, Gary E. Belovsky, Committee Member, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: dispersal limitation; elevated CO2; climate change; range limit; plant migration; species distribution; Lomatium; Quercus garryana

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Marsico, T. D. (2008). Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved from https://curate.nd.edu/show/js956d5980f

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Marsico, Travis David. “Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. Accessed March 19, 2019. https://curate.nd.edu/show/js956d5980f.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Marsico, Travis David. “Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>.” 2008. Web. 19 Mar 2019.

Vancouver:

Marsico TD. Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2008. [cited 2019 Mar 19]. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/js956d5980f.

Council of Science Editors:

Marsico TD. Post-glacial migration, limitations to poleward range expansion, and growth responses to future climates of plants in the Garry oak ecosystem</h1>. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2008. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/js956d5980f

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