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University of Michigan

1. Ellens, Jay Harold. What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions.

Degree: PhD, Near Eastern Studies, 2009, University of Michigan

Second Temple Judaism produced numerous traditions about the Son of Man. In Ezekiel Son of Man means "mere mortal." In Daniel the Son of Man is a heavenly figure accorded power and authority to destroy all evil and establish the divine reign. In 1 Enoch 37-71 the Son of Man is a human, chosen to be the Eschatological Judge. In the Synoptic Gospels the Son of Man is a human proclaiming the kingdom of God on earth, declaring himself the Suffering Servant who will die at the hands of the authorities and be exalted by God to heavenly status as Eschatological Judge. This dissertation concerns the Johannine Son of Man and how it is influenced by competing Second Temple Son of Man traditions. The Gospel of John stands at the crossroad of numerous Second Temple, Son of Man traditions. There is nothing of the Ezekiel tradition in John, but Daniel's heavenly Son of Man is evident in the mind of the author, who envisions him as inherently identified with God, hence having his origin in heaven. Indeed, in John the Son of Man is the divine Logos. There is an inverse influence of 1 Enoch 37-71 upon the Gospel of John, as we can see in John 3:13-18, 5:27-47, 12:31-35. The Johannine Son of Man emphasizes that Enoch could not be the Son of Man because at the definitive points he does not qualify: 1) he is not of divine origin, 2) he has no inherent knowledge of the heavenly mysteries, 3) he does not know that God is the Judge and the judgment preceded creation, 4) he does not perceive that God's judgment is to save the whole world of wicked and righteous. Contrary to the Enochic and Synoptic Son of Man, the Johannine Son of Man is not a human caught up into the heavenly sphere as Eschatological Judge; but a divine figure who descends to earth to remove evil now, by forgiving it and establishing the universal divine reign. Advisors/Committee Members: Boccaccini, Gabriele (committee member), Munoa Iii, Phillip B. (committee member), Schmidt, Brian B. (committee member), Van Dam, Raymond H. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Son of Man; Gospel of John; Christian Origens; Second Temple Judaism; New Testament Studies; Enochic Judaism; Judaic Studies; Humanities

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APA (6th Edition):

Ellens, J. H. (2009). What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Michigan. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/63842

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Ellens, Jay Harold. “What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions.” 2009. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan. Accessed September 22, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/63842.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Ellens, Jay Harold. “What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions.” 2009. Web. 22 Sep 2019.

Vancouver:

Ellens JH. What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Michigan; 2009. [cited 2019 Sep 22]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/63842.

Council of Science Editors:

Ellens JH. What is the Son of Man in John: The Son of Man Logia in John and in the Synoptic Gospels in the Light of Second Temple Judaism Traditions. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Michigan; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/63842

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