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You searched for +publisher:"University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign" +contributor:("Novakofski, Jan"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

1. Dilger, Anna C. Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice.

Degree: PhD, 0002, 2010, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth. Loss of myostatin function results in a dramatic phenotype in several species including cattle, mice, dogs and humans. Myostatin mutants exhibit wide-spread hypermuscularity and decreased fat accumulation. Though the phenotype of myostatin mutant animals is very striking, the question remains whether the loss of myostatin function fundamentally changes growth potential, metabolism, or inherent regulation in tissues, or if it is simply an effect independent of other factors. To that end, we sought to increase muscle growth even further in myostatin null mice through the use of the β-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol. The effects of clenbuterol treatment and the loss of myostatin function are quite similar and, in this study, were completely additive. Clenbuterol treatment increased muscle weights and protein accretion and reduced fat accumulation in both wild type and myostatin null mice. There was a significant interaction of genotype and clenbuterol treatment for gastrocnemius muscle weight, but the magnitude of the differences in weight gain between myostatin null and wild type was very small. We also aimed to alter fat accumulation and metabolism in myostatin null mice by feeding diets high in fat. Other research indicated that myostatin null mice were resistant to fat accumulation induced by high-fat feeding. In our study, fat accumulation was increased in both wild type and myostatin null mice fed high-fat diets, but the magnitude of the increase in myostatin null mice was less than that of wild type mice. This suggests that myostatin null mice are partially resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Markers of metabolic syndrome often induced by high-fat feeding in mice were also improved in myostatin null compared with wild type mice. Liver fat content, serum triglycerides and serum leptin levels were lower in high-fat fed myostatin null mice than similarly fed wild type mice. Glucose tolerance, however, was altered in both genotypes by high-fat feeding and did not show an improvement in myostatin null mice. Given the partial resistance to high-fat induced fat accumulation, we investigated expression of adaptive thermogenic genes and found that some genes were upregulated specifically in high-fat fed myostatin null mice. These changes, however, likely do no fully account for the resistance to fat gain in myostatin null mice. Overall, we conclude from these two studies that, while the loss of myostatin function does have a dramatic effect in increasing muscle growth and reducing fat deposition, it does not represent maximal muscle or minimal fat accumulation. Muscle and fat tissues do respond to both beta-adrenergic agonists and to increased dietary fat and calories. Advisors/Committee Members: Killefer, John (advisor), Killefer, John (Committee Chair), McKeith, Floyd K. (committee member), Novakofski, Jan (committee member), Layman, Donald K. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: muscle; Fat; myostatin; mice

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Dilger, A. C. (2010). Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14555

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Dilger, Anna C. “Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed February 29, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14555.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Dilger, Anna C. “Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice.” 2010. Web. 29 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Dilger AC. Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2010. [cited 2020 Feb 29]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14555.

Council of Science Editors:

Dilger AC. Altering Muscle Hypertrophy and Fat Accumulation in Myostatin Null Mice. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/14555


University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

2. Kelly, Amy C. Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer.

Degree: PhD, 0002, 2010, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

In this study we used molecular techniques to examine deer movement and population structure in the context of chronic wasting disease transmission and spread. Chronic wasting disease is an infectious prion encephalopathy in cervids that is endemic to Colorado and Wyoming but has spread across the US within the last decade. Quantifying white-tailed deer movement and population structure in infected areas can facilitate predictions of CWD spread via deer dispersal. We analyzed microsatellite genotypes of white-tailed deer populations in southern Wisconsin and Illinois to quantify population level movements, genetic admixture and gender-biased dispersal patterns using FST and contingency tests. We also examined movements of individuals using assignment tests and spatial autocorrelation, and quantified dispersal events using parentage assignment. Finally, we compared genetic characteristics such as allelic diversity, heterozygosity and fixation indices between CWD infected and uninfected individuals to determine if CWD affects movement of white-tailed deer. Genetic characteristics were not different between CWD infected and uninfected deer, suggesting that changes in movement behaviors associated with clinical illness were not detectable with our molecular data. We found that both male and female deer move extensively in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin, and that this movement could facilitate CWD spread via dispersal. In contrast, a few locations demonstrated reduced deer movement and female philopatry. One of these locations is a hotspot for CWD in Illinois, and it appears that reduced movements in this area could be exacerbating CWD transmission via direct contact among deer. The observed spatial heterogeneity in deer movement and population structure has important management implications as it allowed us to identify locations at risk for future CWD infection and areas in need of management. Our study was intented to guide population management and conservation, so we wanted to ensure that biological inferences were based on accurate genetic information. Therefore we identified sources of genotyping errors, evaluated measures to correct for their presence and provided recommendations to prevent their negative impacts. We detected null alleles in five of 13 previously evaluated microsatellites, and redesigned primers for two of these loci. Analytical corrections for null alleles were unable to fully prevent bias associated with these genotyping errors, and consequently, measures of population differentiation and kinship were negatively impacted. Our results demonstrate the importance of error evaluation during all stages of population studies, and emphasize the need to standardize procedures for genetic marker evaluation. Since chronic wasting disease management often involves decreasing deer densities to reduce the likelihood of disease occurrence and spread, we wanted to examine the genetic consequences of management in white-tailed deer herds. Increased removal of individuals can alter genetic… Advisors/Committee Members: Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E. (advisor), Novakofski, Jan (Committee Chair), Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E. (committee member), Killefer, John (committee member), Shelton, Paul A. (committee member), Douglas, Michael E. (committee member), Douglas, Marlise (committee member), Ruiz, Marilyn O. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: cervid; prion; microsatellite; population genetics; wildlife

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kelly, A. C. (2010). Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/15575

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kelly, Amy C. “Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed February 29, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/15575.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kelly, Amy C. “Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer.” 2010. Web. 29 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Kelly AC. Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2010. [cited 2020 Feb 29]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/15575.

Council of Science Editors:

Kelly AC. Landscape genetics and CWD in white-tailed deer. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/15575

3. Thompson, Noelle E. White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park.

Degree: MS, Animal Sciences, 2017, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

Using Robert Allerton Park (RAP) and the immediately surrounding properties in east-central Illinois as a study site, my objectives were to investigate changes in deer habitat use and spatial clustering following 10 years of deer removal in RAP. I evaluated changes in annual deer counts within RAP’s three main habitat types, dry mesic upland forest, wet mesic floodplain forest and developed land using a generalized linear mixed model. Annual counts were categorized into two periods: no deer removal (1988-2004) and deer removal (2005-2015). Second, I used Moran’s I spatial autocorrelation measures to evaluate annual changes in deer clustering. To evaluate changes in spatial clustering as a result of deer removal, I used Getis-Ord General Gi* hot spot analysis to compare spatial clustering between periods of no removal and removal. As expected, my results indicate that the number of deer removed annually decreased deer count in RAP. When analyzed by period, deer removal affected deer count, however, this impact varied between habitat types. Wet mesic floodplain forest and developed areas experienced insignificant reductions in deer count between periods whereas dry mesic upland forested habitats experienced significant reductions. Moreover, I detected an increasing trend in annual deer clustering across the study area prior to deer removal. Once the removal program was implemented, I observed a decrease in deer clustering across years. Changes were evident in both cluster location and size across the study site between periods. In conclusion, more deer were observed in wet mesic floodplain forest and developed land following removal which could be explained by the deer removal program, preferential habitat selection, temporal changes in understory quality or a combination of these factors. Advisors/Committee Members: Novakofski, Jan E (advisor), Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E (advisor), Green, Michelle L (committee member), O'Hara Ruiz, Marilyn (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: White-tailed deer; Hunting; Habitat use; Spatial clustering; Deer removal; Culling

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Thompson, N. E. (2017). White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park. (Thesis). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97642

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Thompson, Noelle E. “White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park.” 2017. Thesis, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed February 29, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97642.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Thompson, Noelle E. “White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park.” 2017. Web. 29 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Thompson NE. White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2017. [cited 2020 Feb 29]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97642.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Thompson NE. White-tailed deer hunting and habitat use in Robert Allerton Park. [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97642

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.