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You searched for +publisher:"University of Illinois – Chicago" +contributor:("Whelan, Christopher J"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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1. Troxell-Smith, Sandra M. Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View.

Degree: 2016, University of Illinois – Chicago

As a behavioral ecologist, I implement studies based in foraging theory and ecology to develop a quantifiable metric to understand animal environmental preferences, and how those preferences influence animal decision-making. I utilized this approach in laboratory, zoo, and wild species, and each of my five dissertation chapters investigates a novel application and integration of foraging ecology and animal behavior. Chapter I: I utilized foraging ecology principles to determine effects of domestication on the problem-solving and foraging strategies of laboratory vs. wild-caught house mice (Mus musculus). Domesticated laboratory strains adopted more energy-efficient foraging strategies, and responded more favorably to foraging challenges than their wild counterparts (Troxell-Smith et. al, 2016). This study advanced existing literature regarding how the domestication process influences problem-solving and resource acquisition in laboratory species. Chapter II: I assessed the environmental preferences of zoo-housed okapi (Okapia johnstoni). Based on intensity of foraging in experimental patches, I found that individuals greatly varied their response to, and utilization of, the same exhibit space. I conclude that individual behavioral differences in environmental preference must be incorporated into animal management and welfare decisions. Chapter III: I implemented foraging patch studies to: a) quantify the efficacy of patch use studies as an enrichment opportunity, and b) determine the spatial and foraging preferences for zoo-housed Parma wallabies (Macropus parma), and Patagonian maras (Dolichotis patagonum). Food patches reliably revealed environmental preferences, increased foraging time, and decreased the frequency of inactive behaviors for both species, demonstrating the utility of implementing the food patch technique as a method to assess captive animal welfare. Chapter IV: I examined the effects of implementing social separation (visual barriers) on stereotypic behavior in an adult female okapi (Troxell-Smith & Miller, 2016). Visual barrier installation drastically reduced okapi stereotypic behavior, suggesting that captive social situations have important impacts on animal welfare. Chapter V: I established personality metrics for ten individual brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park, NSW, Australia. Possums were released and monitored to determine individual differences in food quality preference and response to environmental risk. This work advances understanding of how individual personality traits influence environmental and ecological choices. Advisors/Committee Members: Brown, Joel S. (advisor), Whelan, Christopher J. (committee member), Leonard, John (committee member), Schmidt, Jennifer (committee member), Nelson, Karin (committee member), Watters, Jason V. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Behavioral Ecology; Animal Welfare; Foraging Ecology; Giving-up Density; Behavioral Enrichment; Zoo-housed species; Exhibit use; Landscape of comfort

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Troxell-Smith, S. M. (2016). Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View. (Thesis). University of Illinois – Chicago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10027/21246

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Troxell-Smith, Sandra M. “Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View.” 2016. Thesis, University of Illinois – Chicago. Accessed April 13, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10027/21246.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Troxell-Smith, Sandra M. “Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View.” 2016. Web. 13 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Troxell-Smith SM. Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2016. [cited 2021 Apr 13]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/21246.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Troxell-Smith SM. Welfare Assessment Through Foraging: Understanding the Animals' Points of View. [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2016. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/21246

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Orlando, Paul A. The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer.

Degree: 2012, University of Illinois – Chicago

I use consumer resource theory and evolutionary game theory in developing theory with regards to physiology, protists, and viruses. I use differential equation consumer resource systems to provide an ecological basis for theoretical exploration. And I use game theory to model natural selection within an ecological context. I investigate the effects of stoichiometric constraints on consumers in a graphical framework. I found that when stoichiometry is integrated into consumer resource models, ecological communities take on a more complex array of possible states. When resource equilibrium abundances are low, ecological communities are nearly identical to those used to characterize animal communities based on substitutable resources. However, when resource equilibrium abundances are high, ecological communities are similar to those used to characterize plant communities based on essential resources. I investigate the effects of species that can switch trophic levels by a morphologic transformation on ecological communities. I found that these species often stabilize population dynamics, which favors each morph as a separate species. I conclude that switching species likely evolve in environments with stochastic resource fluctuations or extrinsic drivers of resource levels. I also found that although switching species can fill diverse ecological niches in a community, they do not necessarily restrict diversity. I investigate the role of digestive physiology coupled with the digestive properties of resources in structuring ecological communities. I found that bulky resources select for large guts with long throughput times, and high energy/volume resources select for small guts and short throughput times. Most resource pairs lead to the evolution of a specialist on the richer resource followed by the invasion and evolution of a generalist. I also applied theory to HPV induced cancers. I hypothesized that HPV faces a life history tradeoff, where HR HPV is persistent but not very infectious, and vice versa for low-risk HPV. We found that different sexual subcultures within the human population could explain the origin and maintenance of these distinct HPV types. Furthermore, I made a PDE model of HPV infection within mucosal tissue to discover the links between cell population dynamics and HPV protein expression. And how somatic evolution of cells produces tissue level changes. I found that HPV’s proteins likely increase the density of tissue at which cells can divide and possibly also slow the migration rate of cells to the skin surface. I also found that somatic evolution is an alternative explanation for tissue level changes observed during high-risk HPV infection. Advisors/Committee Members: Brown, Joel S. (advisor), Mitchell, William A. (committee member), Grande, Terry (committee member), Buhse, Howard E. (committee member), Whelan, Christopher J. (committee member), Nyberg, Dennis W. (committee member), Gatenby, Robert A. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Evolutionary game theory; Consumer-reosurce model; Community structure; Ecological stoichiometry; Polymorphic species; Human Papillomavirus; Oncogenic Virus

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Orlando, P. A. (2012). The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer. (Thesis). University of Illinois – Chicago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9573

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Orlando, Paul A. “The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer.” 2012. Thesis, University of Illinois – Chicago. Accessed April 13, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9573.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Orlando, Paul A. “The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer.” 2012. Web. 13 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Orlando PA. The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2012. [cited 2021 Apr 13]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9573.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Orlando PA. The Evolutionary ecology of physiological constraints in ecological communities and HPV-induced cancer. [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9573

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

3. Caballero, Isabel C. Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers.

Degree: 2012, University of Illinois – Chicago

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is a bird of prey with one of the largest natural distributions of any avian species. This thesis explores its mating system, effects of reintroductions, and worldwide population structure. Research questions are focused on different spatial and geographical scales, making use of nuclear and mitochondrial data to address these questions. The use of the pesticide DDT had negative impacts on Peregrine populations causing extirpation or sharp reduction in numbers. On a local level, I investigate the breeding and dispersal patterns in urban- dwelling reintroduced Midwestern Peregrine Falcons. Data was gathered from a total of 282 chicks and 68 additional birds with most extensive sampling from Chicago. I found high nest site fidelity, long-term mate fidelity, and two instances of extra-pair paternity. My results are in accordance with previous findings for other raptors that genetic monogamy is the rule and nest site fidelity is frequent. On a regional level, I focused on historical changes in Midwestern populations as well as effects of management practices in Western and Midwestern Peregrines. For the historical aspect, I detected differences in levels of genetic diversity in extirpated and reintroduced Peregrines. Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellite data revealed a genotypic shift between historical and contemporary populations. The cause of this shift is likely the result of the use of non-native stock in the recovery process. For the regional comparison of reintroduced birds, Western management practices involved the use of remnant birds while in the Midwestern non-native stock was used. Analyses were carried out on 192 birds, 112 individuals representing recovered Western US populations and 80 individuals from the Midwest. I found genetic differentiation among populations, and similar levels of genetic diversity across regions. Microsatellite data separate Western Peregrines into three distinct genetic clusters: (i) Channel Islands and Southern California; ii) Northern California and Oregon; and iii) Washington. These genetic patterns were concordant with previous ecological modeling studies. My results do not support the hypothesis that different management techniques have left an imprint on these recovered populations, but there is genetic structure consistent with the original groups on which management plans were focused. On a global level, worldwide Peregrines exhibit regional differences in behavior, morphology, and demographic history. A mix of migratory and resident breeding populations occurs in the northern hemisphere while exclusively resident breeding populations occur in the southern hemisphere where northern migrants come to winter. To understand how Peregrines evolved such a wide-ranging distribution I compared two alternative hypotheses of range expansion: Isolation by Distance, and Suspension of Migration. Genetic results show low to medium degrees of genetic differentiation among northern hemisphere Peregrines while significant differentiation… Advisors/Committee Members: Ashley, Mary V. (advisor), Bates, John M. (advisor), Bates, John M. (committee member), Mason-Gamer, Roberta J. (committee member), Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. (committee member), Whelan, Christopher J. (committee member), Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Peregrine Falcon; DDT; microsatellites; mitochondrial DNA; mating system; pesticides; Isolation by Distance; migration; Falco peregrinus; Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Caballero, I. C. (2012). Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers. (Thesis). University of Illinois – Chicago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9260

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Caballero, Isabel C. “Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers.” 2012. Thesis, University of Illinois – Chicago. Accessed April 13, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9260.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Caballero, Isabel C. “Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers.” 2012. Web. 13 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Caballero IC. Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2012. [cited 2021 Apr 13]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9260.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Caballero IC. Genetic Structure in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus): An Assessment Using Multiple Markers. [Thesis]. University of Illinois – Chicago; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10027/9260

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.