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University of Cincinnati

1. Norton, Amie E. Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts.

Degree: PhD, Arts and Sciences: Chemistry, 2017, University of Cincinnati

Vapochromic materials have attracted attention due to their potential use in chemical sensing and chemical storage applications. In particular, the development of vapochromic materials, which exhibit pronounced color changes upon exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is advantageous because these materials can be used as visual indicators for hazardous chemicals. Stacked square-planar d8-electron metal complexes are especially attractive for sensing applications, because the colors and luminescence properties of these materials are strongly dependent on non-covalent metal-metal interactions, which are perturbed by vapor absorption/desorption. This spectroscopic response potentially can be used as a visual indicator for the presence of specific VOCs. However, there remain deficiencies in our understanding of the properties of vapochromic materials, and these are preventing the development of effective strategies for incorporating vapochromic materials in sensing devices. Notably, it is not fully understood how vapochromic materials absorb/desorb vapors. Moreover, the discovery of vapochromic materials tends to be serendipitous, and little is known about how to modulate their properties. With these difficulties in mind we became interested in characterizing vapochromic properties of [Pt(tpy)Cl]+ salts (tpy=2,2';6',2"-terpyridine). Chapter 2 takes a deeper look at the fate of the [Pt(tpy)Cl](PF6) during sorption/desorption to acetonitrile. The spectroscopic, XRPD, SEM, and optical images reveal surprising complexity in the vapochromic response, including significant vapor-induced mechanical effects. Chapter 3 shows proof-of-concept that vapochromic materials can be used to detect VOCs iii dissolved in water. Specifically, [Pt(tpy)Cl](PF6) responds to acetonitrile in water, and that response is compared to the response of [Pt(tpy)Cl](PF6) to acetonitrile vapor. Chapter 4 shows the hysteresis in the response of [Pt(tpy)Cl](ClO4) to water vapor. Chapter 5 describes a mechanochromic system that was fully characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This is the first case mechanochromism in a platinum(II) system in which the structural basis for the effect has been fully determined. Chapter 6 describes the response of [Pt(tpy)Cl](PF6) to nitric acid in water. Interestingly, an intermediate is detected during the anion exchange reaction. Advisors/Committee Members: Connick, William (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Chemistry; Vapochromic; anion sensing

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APA (6th Edition):

Norton, A. E. (2017). Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Cincinnati. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Norton, Amie E. “Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Cincinnati. Accessed September 22, 2019.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Norton, Amie E. “Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts.” 2017. Web. 22 Sep 2019.


Norton AE. Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati; 2017. [cited 2019 Sep 22]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Norton AE. Investigations of Stimuli-Responsive Platinum(II) Salts. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Cincinnati; 2017. Available from: