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You searched for +publisher:"Universiteit Utrecht" +contributor:("Schellekens, H."). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Universiteit Utrecht

1. Botschen, F.E. Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises.

Degree: 2011, Universiteit Utrecht

Open Innovation (OI) represents a newly emerging business model across a wide range of industries, enabling an ‘open’ flow of internal and external expertise across company barriers in order to enhance innovation and commercialization success. Two dimensions of OI can be distinguished: inbound OI refers to accessing external expertise in order to advance internal development (e.g. via in-licensing), whereas outbound OI refers to the transfer of internal assets or expertise to an external party (e.g. via out-licensing). A sector showing strong signs of OI implementation already is represented by the biopharmaceutical industry. Whereas among the larger established pharmaceutical companies inbound OI represents a yet long established tradition, the outbound dimension is still largely neglected. However, outbound OI (OOI) engagement can positively affect firm performance by offering the opportunity to exploit non-core assets and enhancing the probability of success of strategic assets by transferring them to suitable external parties depending on the needs for successful development and commercialization. It was the goal of this research to identify the associated barriers hindering large established pharmaceutical companies from pursuing OOI practices despite these compelling rationales for outbound OI adoption. To this end, a qualitative multiple case study approach was chosen where twelve representatives of nine (non-biotech) pharmaceutical companies were interviewed regarding their company’s position towards OOI. Major identified barriers consisted in resource competition of inbound vs. outbound activities, a too high effort-return ratio, as well as psychological barriers such as the fear of weakening one’s own competitive position, and external players doubting asset quality. In order to overcome those barriers, managerial measures should encompass systematization of the OOI process in order to decrease the associated effort. Furthermore, overall corporate alignment regarding awareness on OOI benefits has to be established to ensure suitable resource allocation and support minimizing inbound-outbound competition. In addition, the involvement of a third party acting as ‘OOI intermediary’ organizing the process, finding partners, etc. could represent a suitable approach to mitigate OOI-associated barriers. Psychological barriers will presumably disappear once the community of larger pharmaceutical enterprises has become more familiar with this new approach and more practical examples of successful OOI are available. Summarizing, OOI engagement among large established pharmaceutical companies is still in its initial phase, its implementation hindered by several barriers. Yet, efforts to systematize the OOI process are already discernable, indicating that in the future OOI might become part of the new business model within the sector of established pharmaceutical companies providing added value complementary to the main product business. Advisors/Committee Members: Schellekens, H..

Subjects/Keywords: Geowetenschappen; Open Innovation; Outbound; biopharmaceutical industry; Big Pharma; barriers; qualitative multiple case study

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Botschen, F. E. (2011). Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises. (Masters Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/204659

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Botschen, F E. “Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises.” 2011. Masters Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed October 21, 2019. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/204659.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Botschen, F E. “Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises.” 2011. Web. 21 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Botschen FE. Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2011. [cited 2019 Oct 21]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/204659.

Council of Science Editors:

Botschen FE. Barriers to Outbound Open Innovation in large biopharmaceutical enterprises. [Masters Thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2011. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/204659


Universiteit Utrecht

2. Zoest, T.W. van. New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results.

Degree: 2010, Universiteit Utrecht

According to the literature, R&D investments in the pharmaceutical industry do not corresponds equally to the number of developed new drugs. The literature indicates that companies do large acquisitions or merge in order to maintain their positions in the top of the industry and compensate the lack of innovative drugs in their pipeline. The main goal of the first part of this research was to discover to what extent the pharmaceutical companies are in control over their R&D programmes. This was not investigated until know. A lack of control over their R&D programmes could be a cause of the lack of new drugs in their pipeline. If the companies appeared to have full control over their pipelines, the cause of the problem must be searched somewhere else. The first main research question investigated the control that large pharmaceutical companies have of their own R&D activities and the drugs and disease areas that are present in their pipeline. Therefore, a research population of six large pharmaceutical companies are investigated by means of archival analysis. The main research question was: What are the differences between the initial new drug R&D strategies and plans and the new drugs that appeared in the pipeline of large pharmaceutical companies in the period 2000 until 2009? The conclusion of the first main research question was that none of the six investigated companies was able to realise all its ambitions regarding to new drug development and served disease areas. In other words, the companies did not have full control over their pipelines. However, it appeared that transactions of knowledge and technologies are part of daily routines in for pharmaceutical companies. The border between daily routines to maintain the own competitive position, and attempts to compensate inefficiency and failures at the own R&D department is unknown. The results of the first part show that a framework to investigate which factor influence the success of new drug R&D programmes was needed. Such a framework was not available in the literature so far. Therefore, the second part of this research investigated which factors influenced the success of the R&D programmes. A conceptual framework, based on the Five Phases model of Tidd (et al, 2001) and the Resource Based view of Barney (1991) was developed. In order to refine the conceptual framework, interviews with very experienced employees at three of the six investigated companies were conducted. The central research question was: What was the influence of the ‘ability to provide resources effectively’, ‘the ability to implement technology’, ‘dynamic capabilities’, and ‘possession of strategic resources’ on the success of new drug R&D programmes? Based on the analysis of the answers of the three conducted interviews it can be stated that each of the factors that are named in the second main research question contribute positively to the success of new drug R&D programmes at the investigated large pharmaceutical companies. However, the analysis of the answers on the… Advisors/Committee Members: Schellekens, H., Moors, E.H.M..

Subjects/Keywords: Geowetenschappen; strategy; pharmaceutical; industry; drugs; R&D; input; output; differences; factors; model

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Zoest, T. W. v. (2010). New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results. (Masters Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/179637

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Zoest, T W van. “New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results.” 2010. Masters Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed October 21, 2019. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/179637.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Zoest, T W van. “New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results.” 2010. Web. 21 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Zoest TWv. New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2010. [cited 2019 Oct 21]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/179637.

Council of Science Editors:

Zoest TWv. New drug development strategies: The differences between the initial plans and the final results. [Masters Thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2010. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/179637


Universiteit Utrecht

3. Zwan, D. van der. Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective.

Degree: 2012, Universiteit Utrecht

Throughout the years, animal models have been used extensively for toxicological safety assessment. Alternative methods that do not require animals have been developed extensively, but are adopted scarcely in spite of scientific, economical and societal deficiencies of animal models. This is believed to be part of a transition problem, which refers to the structural reorientation of an entire sector, in this case the life sciences. One example where technological change did happen is in the field of eye irritation testing. The Draize eye irritation test using live rabbits has been (partially) replaced in OECD guidelines with the Isolated Chicken Eye (ICE) test and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test. For this reason, the ICE and BCOP test serve as a case study to how and why they were successful in replacing the Draize test. The main research question is: Which sociotechnical factors influenced the successful technological development and regulatory validation of the BCOP and ICE test methods for (partially) replacing the Draize eye irritation test in the field of toxicological safety testing? The multi-level perspective (MLP) on transitions is employed as an analytical framework to analyze the case study according to the different levels (i.e. niche, regime and landscape) of the MLP. Data is obtained through literature review and interviews with twelve international experts in the field of toxicology. The results indicate that a globally operating, multi-actor network forms the basis of the safety-testing regime. It can be concluded that the safety-testing regime has undergone a transformation path: moderate landscape pressure in the form an effective anti-Draize campaign happened at a moment when the ICE and BCOP niche-innovations had not been sufficiently developed to fully substitute the Draize test. The safety-testing regime was disrupted enough for regime actors, industry and public authorities in particular, to pick up on the niche innovation. They responded by modifying the innovation activities that were needed to get organotypic methods validated for use in formal regulatory safety-assessment. From the moment that the first validation studies took place, the ICE and BCOP test have coexisted in symbiotic fashion next to the Draize test. Cumulative adjustments and reorientations in the safety-testing regime had to take place to validate the ICE and BCOP test: legislation was created that forced the development of alternatives methods. Industry in collaboration with public authorities and public research support actors started extensive validation programs, which have improved considerably through learning, by including prediction models, protocols and a tiered testing strategy. Under the landscape pressure of globalization, the EU and US saw increased collaboration that resulted in a retrospective validation study, which paved the way for US federal endorsement and OECD acceptance of the ICE and BCOP test. Advisors/Committee Members: Kooijman, M., Moors, E.H.M., Schellekens, H..

Subjects/Keywords: Geowetenschappen; eye irritation, alternative methods, non-animal methods, BCOP, ICE, multi-level perspective, socio-technical factors, Draize test, transition, toxicological safety testing, Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test, Isolated Chicken Eye test

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Zwan, D. v. d. (2012). Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective. (Masters Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/249075

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Zwan, D van der. “Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective.” 2012. Masters Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed October 21, 2019. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/249075.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Zwan, D van der. “Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective.” 2012. Web. 21 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Zwan Dvd. Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2012. [cited 2019 Oct 21]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/249075.

Council of Science Editors:

Zwan Dvd. Alternative methods for eye irritation testing: transition in toxicological safety testing through a multi-level perspective. [Masters Thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2012. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/249075

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