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You searched for +publisher:"Universiteit Utrecht" +contributor:("Bakker, J."). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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Universiteit Utrecht

1. Worrell, L.A. Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones.

Degree: 2010, Universiteit Utrecht

The sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second semester of pregnancy, which is, after the development of the genitals which differentiate in the second month of pregnancy. Because these two processes have different timetables, it could be that these are initiated through different pathways. Male gonads synthesize testosterone, which can be converted into estrogen by aromatase in the brain. In humans, the exact mechanism of male and female brain development has still to be elucidated. Based on clinical evidence from genetic men (XY) suffering from a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (complete androgen-insensitivity syndrome) and who show a female phenotype of the external genitals as well as the brain, it can be proposed that direct action of testosterone is probably causing the brain to differentiate in the male direction. However, when the process of genital development and of brain sexual development does not match the same sex, females with a male brain and vice versa can arise. These transsexual people have problems with their gender identity and have the conviction of being born in the wrong body. Twin and family studies show that there are genetic factors influencing the chances of a gender identity problem. Genetic factors could play a large role in the sexual differentiation of the brain, as can be shown from studies where differential genetic expression is found before development of the gonads. These genes could also function in other tissues than gonads and influence the sexual differentiation of the brain. The DMRT gene family which encodes transcription factors or the amount of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is possibly influencing the development of sex differences, just as sex-biased differential splicing. Epigenetic mechanisms such as X-inactivation and genomic imprinting are also good candidates for causing differences in the sexual differentiation of the brain. These observations indicate that probably many processes operate together in the sexual differentiation of the brain and that diverse mutations can lead to gender identity problems. Advisors/Committee Members: Kas, MJH, Bakker, J.

Subjects/Keywords: sexual differentiation; transsexuality; gender identity; hormones

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Worrell, L. A. (2010). Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones. (Masters Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/182733

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Worrell, L A. “Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones.” 2010. Masters Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed December 13, 2019. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/182733.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Worrell, L A. “Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones.” 2010. Web. 13 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Worrell LA. Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2010. [cited 2019 Dec 13]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/182733.

Council of Science Editors:

Worrell LA. Sexual differentiation of the brain related to gender identity: beyond hormones. [Masters Thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2010. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/182733


Universiteit Utrecht

2. Smeets, J.A.S. Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?.

Degree: 2015, Universiteit Utrecht

Puberty is the process of physical and psychological development towards adulthood, ultimately marked by the ability to reproduce. This development requires activation at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis): the hypothalamus for pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the pituitary for the pulsatile release of gonadotrophic factors and the gonads for generating gametes and gonadal steroids in response to these pulses. Pulsatile GnRH release from the hypothalamus is the primary drive to the HPG-axis. It seems that this is the limiting factor for the initiation of puberty. This system has the full potential to function at birth, but is being held in check. Interestingly, several direct and indirect upstream signaling pathways regulate the GnRH-secreting neurons: such as kisspeptin, leptin and gonadal steroids. Changes in these upstream factors might explain the initiation of pulsatile GnRH secretion and pubertal development. However, despite extensive research, it remains a mystery as to what exactly triggers the sudden onset of puberty. Furthermore, a clear sex difference exists in the presentation of puberty, occurring 1-2 years earlier in girls. This suggests that underlying mechanisms controlling GnRH secretion are differentially regulated in both sexes. The current review aims to give a critical overview of recent findings on factors that contribute to the initiation of puberty. Mechanisms that could underlie the sex difference in onset of puberty will be highlighted. New lines of research and remaining questions in the field will be discussed. Advisors/Committee Members: Bakker, J., Oosting, R..

Subjects/Keywords: Puberty onset; pubertal development; sex difference; GnRH pulses; kisspeptin; leptin

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Smeets, J. A. S. (2015). Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?. (Masters Thesis). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/311317

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Smeets, J A S. “Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?.” 2015. Masters Thesis, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed December 13, 2019. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/311317.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Smeets, J A S. “Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?.” 2015. Web. 13 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Smeets JAS. Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2015. [cited 2019 Dec 13]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/311317.

Council of Science Editors:

Smeets JAS. Timing of puberty - Which factors trigger pulsatile GnRH release and the onset of puberty?. [Masters Thesis]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2015. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/311317

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