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You searched for +publisher:"Temple University" +contributor:("Greenfield, Leonard"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Temple University

1. James, Danielle Nicole. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific.

Degree: PhD, 2008, Temple University

Anthropology

The purpose of this study is to examine mitochondrial DNA variation in the Southwest Pacific and determine what factors contribute to the degree and patterning of the observed variation. Population variation is known to be influenced by factors including demographic history, natural selection, climate, isolation, island area/complexity, and population age, as older populations are generally more diverse. The groups compared are from three regions in the Southwest Pacific; (a) northeast New Guinea, (b) Manus in northern Island Melanesia and (c) Easter Island in eastern Polynesia. MtDNA surveys have revealed highly significant differences in molecular variance across these populations. According to traditional biogeographical theory, the likely determinants of these differences are (a) length of time since initial settlement, (b) the comparative isolation of particular islands or regions since settlement, and (c) the size and complexity of settlement areas. Evidence from archaeology and linguistics provides the necessary framework for the study. Detailed archaeological surveys for several of the study regions provides evidence for settlement dates as well as evidence for isolation and/or frequent contact with other areas, usually in the form of trade and translocation of animals and artifacts. Linguistics, though not as informative as archaeology for settlement dates, provides detailed evidence for isolation and/or contact in the form of language isolates, language families, borrowing and linguistic divergence. The mtDNA haplogroups found in this study belong to several documented haplogroups, some of Melanesian origin, and some of Southeast Asian origin. The distribution of mtDNA variants and the pattern and degree of variation was examined using Analysis of Molecular Variance, standard diversity measures and partial Mantel matrix correlations. There were strong positive correlations between insular area, isolation and degree of variation. There were also measurable differences between inland and coastal populations on the larger islands where diversity in the isolated inland populations was greater than diversity in the coastal population. While there was some confounding of the variables, the results of our analysis indicate that insular area/complexity and isolation influence the pattern of variance more than length of settlement time.

Temple University – Theses

Advisors/Committee Members: Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott, Lorenz, Joseph G., Weitz, Charles A., Greenfield, Leonard, Schurr, Theodore G. (Theodore George).

Subjects/Keywords: Anthropology, Physical; mtDNA; Pacific; Melanesia; phylogeography

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

James, D. N. (2008). Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific. (Doctoral Dissertation). Temple University. Retrieved from http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5604

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

James, Danielle Nicole. “Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University. Accessed December 04, 2020. http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5604.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

James, Danielle Nicole. “Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific.” 2008. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

James DN. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5604.

Council of Science Editors:

James DN. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5604


Temple University

2. Latham, Krista Erin. Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers.

Degree: PhD, 2008, Temple University

Anthropology

The South Pacific is a region of incredible biological, cultural and linguistic diversity, reflecting its early settlement by human populations. It has been a region of interest to scholars because of this diversity, as well as its unique geography and settlement history. Current evidence suggests there was an initial settlement of Near Oceania during the Pleistocene by Papuan-speaking foragers, followed by a later Holocene settlement of Remote Oceania by Oceanic-speaking agriculturalists. Previous studies of human biological variation have been used to illuminate the migration history of and population relationships within Oceania. In this study, I analyzed Y-chromosome (NRY) diversity in 842 unrelated males to more fully characterize the phylogeography of paternal genetic lineages in this region, using a large number of regionally informative markers on an intensive sample set from Northern Island Melanesia. This approach facilitated an analysis of NRY haplogroup distributions, an evaluation of the ancestral paternal genetic contribution to the region, and a comparison of regional NRY diversity with that observed at different genetic loci (e.g., mtDNA). This project is part of a collaborative effort by faculty and graduate students from the Temple University Department of Anthropology that focused on characterizing biological variation and genetic structure in Melanesia, and better resolving the phylogeographic specificity of Northern Island Melanesia. Overall, this study generated a higher resolution view of NRY haplogroup variation than detected in previous studies through the use of newly defined and very informative SNP markers. It also showed that there is a very small ancestral East Asian paternal contribution to this area, and a rather large proportion of older Melanesian NRY lineages present there. In addition, this study observed extraordinary NRY diversity within Northern Island Melanesia, as well as genetic structure influenced more by geography than linguistic variation. This structure and diversity was essentially equivalent to that noted for mtDNA data for this region. Finally, this study helped to resolve questions about the placement of the 50f2/c deletion within the larger NRY tree. Overall, this work has refined our understanding of the migration and demographic history of Northern Island Melanesia.

Temple University – Theses

Advisors/Committee Members: Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott, Lorenz, Joseph G., Weitz, Charles A., Greenfield, Leonard, Schurr, Theodore G. (Theodore George).

Subjects/Keywords: Anthropology, Physical; Y-Chromosome; NRY; South Pacific; Melanesia; Population Genetics

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Latham, K. E. (2008). Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers. (Doctoral Dissertation). Temple University. Retrieved from http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5736

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Latham, Krista Erin. “Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University. Accessed December 04, 2020. http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5736.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Latham, Krista Erin. “Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers.” 2008. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Latham KE. Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5736.

Council of Science Editors:

Latham KE. Assessing Y-Chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected NRY Markers. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,5736


Temple University

3. Nalls, Michael A. Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count.

Degree: PhD, 2008, Temple University

Anthropology

This study analyzes variation in WBC among participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (Health ABC). First, white blood cell (WBC) counts are compared among African Americans and European Americans in the study, confirming a significant difference. These population-based differences in WBC are also described in literature as differing significantly between different African populations, Caribbean populations, Central and South American groups, Asian populations and Europeans (Bain et al., 1984; Saxena and Wong, 1990; Bain, 1996; Menard et al., 2003; Hsieh et al., 2007). Ancestry informative markers are used to estimate the individual ancestry of the African Americans in the study. There is a significant association of low WBC with a higher proportion of African ancestry. An admixture mapping approach is used to identify a novel locus [independently identified in a separate admixture scan in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)] that influences WBC levels. The peaks of association in both studies localize to a region ~0.9 Mb centered on the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines gene (DARC [MIM 110700]). Second, the functionality at the DARC locus is determined by investigating associations between DARC and neutrophils, lymnphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils. This investigation shows a consistent genetic effect at this locus associated with all of these differential cell types. Third, the association of DARC with all marrow derived cell lineages and red blood cell levels is evaluated. It is shown that, in addition to known associations between the DARC gene and malarial resistance (Miller et al., 1976; Livingstone, 1984) often associated with red blood cells, the DARC gene is also associated with WBC levels (Nalls et al., 2008). Selective pressure at this genetic locus may be related to its effect on WBC that may have contributed to the fixation of the FY- allele in some populations.

Temple University – Theses

Advisors/Committee Members: Weitz, Charles A., Harris, Tamara, Greenfield, Leonard, Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott, Matarin, Mar;.

Subjects/Keywords: Anthropology, Physical; Health Sciences, Epidemiology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Nalls, M. A. (2008). Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count. (Doctoral Dissertation). Temple University. Retrieved from http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,9412

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Nalls, Michael A. “Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University. Accessed December 04, 2020. http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,9412.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Nalls, Michael A. “Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count.” 2008. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Nalls MA. Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,9412.

Council of Science Editors:

Nalls MA. Admixture mapping and investigation of genetic associations of white blood cell count. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Temple University; 2008. Available from: http://digital.library.temple.edu/u?/p245801coll10,9412

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