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You searched for +publisher:"Princeton University" +contributor:("Zondlo, Mark A"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Princeton University

1. Miller, David Jacob. Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements .

Degree: PhD, 2014, Princeton University

Atmospheric aerosols and their precursors have significant influences on Earth's climate and tropospheric air quality. Aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Anthropogenic aerosols degrade regional air quality, with implications for human health. Aerosol and precursor observations on multiple spatial scales are necessary to understand primary emissions, secondary formation, long-range transport and nitrogen deposition. Ammonia (NH3) is an important gas-phase precursor to fine particulate matter. Recent air quality model simulations show large discrepancies with NH3 observations due to significant emission inventory uncertainties, especially for increasing, highly variable agricultural NH3 emissions. Gas-phase NH3 measurement challenges due to surface adsorption and partitioning in closed-path NH3 sensors have led to a lack of widespread NH3 observations. To improve our understanding of aerosol and NH3 precursor emissions, my dissertation focuses on synthesizing new observations from continental to individual emission plume scales. First, I synthesized multiple aerosol datasets to track the physical and chemical evolution of biomass burning smoke aerosols and quantified how their long-range transport influenced U.S. air quality. Next, I developed and performed rigorous field testing of a quantum cascade laser-based, open-path NH3 instrument capable of high precision (0.15 ppbv NH3), high time resolution (10 Hz) field measurements with minimal sampling biases. Upon validating its field performance, I applied this sensor to perform open-path, mobile measurements of NH3 dairy emission ratios in the Central Valley, California during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Ammonia emission ratios were quantified from individual dairy farms to regional scales through syntheses with aircraft measurements. The final part of my dissertation involved the development and field deployment of a quantum cascade laser-based, open path-integrated methane sensor, which achieved long path length, high precision (0.5% at 1 Hz) measurements in an Arctic field environment. The path-integrated configuration is applicable for future NH3 measurements on comparable spatial scales to regional model simulations. Ultimately, these efforts have implications for understanding aerosol long-range transport and provide new high resolution, in-situ NH3 measurement capabilities applicable for validating NH3 emission inventories and air quality modeling efforts to constrain NH3 emission influences on air quality. Advisors/Committee Members: Zondlo, Mark A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: aerosols; ammonia; atmospheric measurements; quantum cascade laser

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Miller, D. J. (2014). Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ns064616w

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Miller, David Jacob. “Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements .” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ns064616w.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Miller, David Jacob. “Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements .” 2014. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Miller DJ. Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2014. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ns064616w.

Council of Science Editors:

Miller DJ. Ammonia and Aerosol Emission Impacts: New Insights with Open-path Measurements . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2014. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ns064616w

2. Sun, Kang. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor .

Degree: PhD, 2015, Princeton University

As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3 emission estimates. Finally, NH3 observations from the TES instrument on NASA Aura satellite were validated with mobile measurements and aircraft observations. Improved validations will help to constrain NH3 emissions at continental to global scales. Ultimately, these efforts will improve the understanding of NH3 emissions from all scales, with implications on the global nitrogen cycle and atmospheric chemistry-climate interactions. Advisors/Committee Members: Zondlo, Mark A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Ammonia; Eddy covariance; Mobile laboratory; Satellite validation; Scalar similarity; Vehicle emissions

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Sun, K. (2015). Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01zg64tp25n

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Sun, Kang. “Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor .” 2015. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01zg64tp25n.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Sun, Kang. “Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor .” 2015. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Sun K. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2015. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01zg64tp25n.

Council of Science Editors:

Sun K. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2015. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01zg64tp25n

3. Diao, Minghui. Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations .

Degree: PhD, 2013, Princeton University

Water vapor, clouds and aerosols are three major components in the atmosphere that largely influence the Earth's climate and weather systems. However, there is still a lack of understanding on the distribution and interaction of these components. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and direction of the aerosol indirect effect on cloud radiative forcing, which potentially can either double or cancel out all anthropogenic greenhouse gas effect. In particular, a small variation in water vapor mixing ratio and cloud distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) can generate large impacts on the Earth's surface temperature. Yet the understanding of water vapor and clouds in the UT/LS is still limited due to difficulties in observations. To improve our understanding of these components, observations are needed from the microscale (~100 m) to the global scale. The first part of my PhD work is to provide quality-controlled, high resolution (~200 m), in situ water vapor observations using an open-path, aircraft-based laser hygrometer. The laboratory calibrations of the laser hygrometer were conducted using complementary experimental systems. The second part is to compare the NASA AIRS/AMSU-A water vapor and temperature retrievals with aircraft-based observations from the surface to the UT/LS at 87°N-67°S in order to understand the accuracy and uncertainties in remote sensing measurements. The third part of my research analyzes the spatial characteristics and formation condition of ice supersaturation (ISS), the birthplace of cirrus clouds, and shows that water vapor horizontal heterogeneities play a key role in determining the spatial distribution of ISS. The fourth part is to understand the formation and evolution of ice crystal regions (ICRs) in a quasi-Lagrangian view. Finally, to help estimate the hemispheric differences in ice nucleation, the ISS distribution and ICR evolution are compared between the two hemispheres. Overall, these analyses provided a microphysical scale yet global perspective of the formation of ISS and cirrus clouds. Ultimately, these efforts will help to improve the understanding of human activities' influences on clouds, water vapor and relative humidity in the UT/LS and provide more accurate representations of these components in future climate prediction. Advisors/Committee Members: Zondlo, Mark A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: AIRS; cirrus; ice crystal; ice supersaturation; nucleation; water vapor

…from Princeton University, the Walbridge Fund Graduate Award, the Princeton Environment and… …calibrations in the laboratory at Princeton University… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Diao, M. (2013). Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q524jn894

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Diao, Minghui. “Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations .” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q524jn894.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Diao, Minghui. “Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations .” 2013. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Diao M. Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2013. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q524jn894.

Council of Science Editors:

Diao M. Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2013. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q524jn894

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