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You searched for +publisher:"Princeton University" +contributor:("Vecchi, Gabriel A"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Princeton University

1. Choi, Kit Yan. El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate .

Degree: PhD, 2015, Princeton University

The differences between the warm and cold phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation have profound implications on their potential socio-economical impacts and predictability; and understanding them provides insights into the fundamental dynamics of the coupled climate system. In this dissertation, these differences are systematically quantified in terms of their amplitude, duration and sequencing preferences. The role of atmospheric nonlinearities in causing these differences is investigated using a hierarchy of models. It is found that the equatorial surface zonal wind response being stronger during El Niño than during La Niña can lead to the observed ENSO asymmetry in a consistent manner. The nonlinearity in the zonal wind response strength has not been previously explained. With the use of a linear shallow water model, it is demonstrated that the nonlinear surface zonal wind response is related to the nonlinearity in the precipitation response. By decomposing the precipitation anomalies into components attributable to adjustments of the Walker circulation (zonal redistribution) and the local Hadley cell (meridional redistribution) respectively, it is shown that during La Niña, the meridional adjustment acts to reduce the climatological precipitation available for the zonal adjustment to take place, therefore weakens the La Niña surface zonal wind response and enhances the zonal wind response nonlinearity. As the equatorial climatological precipitation is found to be linearly correlated with the surface zonal wind response during El Niño and La Niña, it follows that the mean state climatological may have a strong control on ENSO characteristics. This hypothesis is tested by flux adjusting a state-of-the-art coupled climate model to different ocean surface climatological states. Some, but not all of the ENSO statistics and feedbacks are shown to depend systematically on the the mean climate state. Several hypotheses on the causal relationships between ENSO and the mean climate are also tested. The extent to which ENSO depends on the mean climate state is quantified and discussed. Advisors/Committee Members: Vecchi, Gabriel A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Asymmetry; Climate; El Niño; ENSO; La Niña; Nonlinearity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Choi, K. Y. (2015). El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01s1784p111

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Choi, Kit Yan. “El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate .” 2015. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01s1784p111.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Choi, Kit Yan. “El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate .” 2015. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Choi KY. El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2015. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01s1784p111.

Council of Science Editors:

Choi KY. El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Asymmetry, nonlinear atmospheric response and the role of mean climate . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2015. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01s1784p111


Princeton University

2. Strong, Jeffrey Davin O'Neill. The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust .

Degree: PhD, 2016, Princeton University

Mineral dust aerosols are a diverse set of atmospheric constituents which provide some of the largest natural direct radiative forcing and have the propensity to affect several human-relevant issues. This dissertation investigates the regional and global climatic response to aerosol radiative forcing from dust using simulations with a suite of fully coupled climate models. An idealized perturbation to global dust climatology, with changes in Saharan-born dust comparable to the observed changes between the 1960s and 1990s, and an ensemble of realistic dust optical properties are utilized to study the climatological effect of perturbations in atmospheric burden and optical regime of Saharan dust. Changes in dust atmospheric concentration lead to direct radiative responses from the top of the atmosphere (ToA) through to the surface along with regional hydrologic and thermodynamic responses, depending crucially on the amount of aerosol absorption versus scattering. There are large anomalies in the West African monsoon due to moist enthalpy changes throughout the atmospheric column over West Africa. In the tropical North Atlantic, there are significant responses in the upper ocean heat budget arising from the wind stress curl response to a shift in the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated mixed layer depth anomalies. Simultaneously, there are changes in tropical cyclone activity across the North Atlantic Ocean with the largest response occurring in the most absorbing and scattering optical regimes. There are also non-negligible anomalies in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans. A relationship between accumulated cyclone energy and ToA radiative flux anomalies is used to explain the North Atlantic anomalies while several known climate variations are theorized to explain the far-field response to the dust forcing. Changing the optical regime of dust alone is found to lead to radiative anomalies larger than simply adding dust. As dust becomes more scattering, there is a net global cooling focused in the Northern Hemisphere and a general equatorward shift of tropical precipitation and the mid-latitude atmospheric jets. This leads to a preferential negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, a decrease in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, and associated changes to the global meridional heat transport. Advisors/Committee Members: Vecchi, Gabriel A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Climate; Dust; Hurricanes; Hydroclimate; Sahara; Tropics

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Strong, J. D. O. (2016). The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0100000249w

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Strong, Jeffrey Davin O'Neill. “The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust .” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0100000249w.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Strong, Jeffrey Davin O'Neill. “The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust .” 2016. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Strong JDO. The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2016. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0100000249w.

Council of Science Editors:

Strong JDO. The Climatological Effect of Perturbations in Atmospheric Burden and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2016. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0100000249w


Princeton University

3. Baldwin, Jane Wilson. Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding .

Degree: PhD, 2018, Princeton University

Global warming is projected to induce changes in phenomena ranging from hurricanes to heat waves to droughts. Preparing for these changes requires both fundamental understanding of the climate system, and applied understanding of the risks posed by such events. This dissertation engages with both these areas of inquiry by analyzing diverse observations and global climate model (GCM) simulations. Two studies in this dissertation explore a basic climate dynamics question: what role does orography (i.e. mountains and other topographic features) play in shaping patterns of precipitation over Asia? Both studies are conducted by comparing a control GCM simulation incorporating modern day orography to a perturbation simulation where specific orography is flattened. The first study examines the influence of the Tian Shan, a mountain range branching north from the Tibetan Plateau, on extratropical deserts in Asia. The western and eastern deserts in this region exhibit strikingly different seasonal cycles of precipitation. The Tian Shan's role in this zonal gradient of precipitation is examined, and an important role for the Tian Shan in enhancing the East Asian Monsoon is highlighted. The second study examines the influence of the Tibetan Plateau and related orography on Asian monsoons and tropical cyclones. Asian orography is found to increase precipitation over the Western North Pacific (WNP) throughout the summer monsoon, but decrease precipitation over the Arabian Sea. The mountains also alter tropical cyclones, enhancing and suppressing their formation in the WNP and Arabian Sea, respectively. The roles of model resolution and atmosphere-ocean coupling in these responses are differentiated using a hierarchy of GCM simulations. The third study of this dissertation focuses on an applied, policy-motivated question: what is the hazard of heat waves occurring close together in time (i.e. temporally compounding), and how will that change with global warming? Definitions of heat wave compounding are developed and applied to GCM simulations with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is argued that the hazard of compound heat waves will disproportionately increase with global warming. Prior events will then play an increasingly large role in heat wave vulnerability. Policy implications of this conclusion are discussed. Advisors/Committee Members: Vecchi, Gabriel A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: climate; desert; heat wave; monsoon; orography; tropical cyclone

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Baldwin, J. W. (2018). Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01fq977x47v

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Baldwin, Jane Wilson. “Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding .” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01fq977x47v.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Baldwin, Jane Wilson. “Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding .” 2018. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Baldwin JW. Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2018. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01fq977x47v.

Council of Science Editors:

Baldwin JW. Orographic Controls on Asian Hydroclimate, and an Examination of Heat Wave Temporal Compounding . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2018. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01fq977x47v

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