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You searched for +publisher:"Princeton University" +contributor:("Ghazanfar, Asif A"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Princeton University

1. Liao, Diana April. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys .

Degree: PhD, 2019, Princeton University

A key question for understanding speech evolution is whether or not the vocalizations of our closest living relatives — nonhuman primates — represent the precursors to speech. Some believe that primate vocalizations are not volitional, but are instead inextricably linked to internal states like arousal with different vocalizations produced simply as a result of the animal’s changing state. However, testing the integrity of this claim has been difficult given that it is difficult to get a quantitative measure of arousal in the wild but also difficult to elicit different call-types in the lab because of the scarcity of contextual cues driving complex vocal behaviors. To address this quandary, we present a behavioral paradigm that reliably elicits different types of affiliative vocalizations from marmosets while measuring their heart rate via non-invasive electromyography (EMG). By modulating both the physical distance between marmosets and the sensory information available to them, we find that arousal levels are linked, but not inextricably, to vocal production. External factors like the calls of the partner also drive the temporal and spectral dynamics of the vocal interaction. To further examine the interplay between arousal and the processing of sensory stimuli, we examined a node in the vocal production network, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), that is known to modulate and be modulated by arousal. However, the ACC exhibits extensive structural and functional heterogeneity and so we first utilize functional ultrasound imaging, with its excellent temporal and spatial resolution, to localize vocal perception-correlated subregions of the ACC. We then performed targeted recordings of those ACC neurons during playback of different call types while simultaneously collecting EMG data. We found a significant proportion of neurons in the ACC exhibited significant but heterogeneous responses to call playback. In addition to representing different call-types, neural responses also reflect differences in the acoustic structure within a call type. When taking the marmoset’s current arousal state before call playback onset, we also show modulation of the neurons responsiveness to call type presentation and sensitivity to call features. This coupling of internal states and sensory processing may be a mechanism underlying the ability to respond adaptively and flexibly to dynamic events in the environment. Advisors/Committee Members: Ghazanfar, Asif A (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Arousal; Call perception; Call production; Social context; Vocal exchanges; Vocalization

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Liao, D. A. (2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01m900nx358

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Liao, Diana April. “Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys .” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed January 16, 2021. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01m900nx358.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Liao, Diana April. “Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys .” 2019. Web. 16 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Liao DA. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2019. [cited 2021 Jan 16]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01m900nx358.

Council of Science Editors:

Liao DA. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors driving vocal interactions in marmoset monkeys . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2019. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01m900nx358

2. Borjon, Jeremy Isaac. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION .

Degree: PhD, 2017, Princeton University

In humans, vocal production is typically cast as a cognitively intensive process, requiring a big brain and complex cognitive mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that the vocal behavior of marmoset monkeys, a diminutive New World primate, is strikingly human-like in its dynamics and development. Considering the evolutionary gap between species, any shared neural mechanisms should be quite old. We propose that the convergent evolution of vocal behavior between marmosets and humans is partly due to neural mechanisms scaffolding upon a pre-existing arousal-regulation mechanism. We directly tested our hypothesis by recording natural changes in the adult marmoset’s arousal state as it spontaneously vocalized. We demonstrate predictable changes in the animal’s arousal state across multiple indices: heart rate, respiration rate, and motor activity. Moreover, the timing of vocal production in adult marmosets is coupled with the phase of a 0.1 Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm, the Mayer wave. The results of this study suggest that arousal dynamics are critical in assembling the timing and prediction of spontaneous primate vocalizations. We next sought to determine whether the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system can act as a scaffold for the development of behavior. We densely sampled indices of arousal, motor activity, and vocal behavior from seven infant marmosets from birth until two months of age. Consistent with the human literature, changes in motor activity are predictive of vocal development in marmoset monkeys. Further, the developmental trajectory of the autonomic nervous system is itself oscillatory and correlates to changes in both the infant’s vocal development and its motor development. We used statistical methods to extract causality between these processes. Changes in the development of the autonomic nervous system drives both the development of mature motor behavior and mature vocal production. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the autonomic nervous system is critical for the development and expression of spontaneous behavior in primates. Advisors/Committee Members: Ghazanfar, Asif A (advisor), Gould, Elizabeth (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Autonomic Nervous System; Development; Marmoset; Mayer wave; Primate; Vocal Production

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Borjon, J. I. (2017). AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01b5644v14s

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Borjon, Jeremy Isaac. “AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION .” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed January 16, 2021. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01b5644v14s.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Borjon, Jeremy Isaac. “AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION .” 2017. Web. 16 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Borjon JI. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2017. [cited 2021 Jan 16]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01b5644v14s.

Council of Science Editors:

Borjon JI. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND PRIMATE VOCAL PRODUCTION . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2017. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01b5644v14s


Princeton University

3. Kulahci, Ipek Gokce. Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning .

Degree: PhD, 2014, Princeton University

Most social species display social selectivity by establishing connections with only a subset of their group members. Selective social connections, based on who interacts with whom and how frequently, can have consequences for who becomes socially central, who communicates with whom, who observes whom when faced with novel information, and who learns faster than others. Through observations and experiments with ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), I demonstrate that selectivity in social connections is reflected in selective communication, selective attention, and information transmission. I constructed social networks from connections based on affiliative interactions (grooming, social play, food sharing), communication (contact calling, scent marking), aggressive interactions, and physical proximity. Through analysis of these networks, I demonstrate that lemurs are highly selective in their social connections. Individuals who have high social centrality in one social context also have high social centrality in several other social contexts, suggesting that lemurs display "social personalities" that carry over across different social contexts. Lemur communication is also subject to social selectivity. Contact calls, in particular, reflect the strong social bonds between the group members. A reliable indicator of strong social bonds is grooming, and lemurs produce vocal responses to the contact calls of the group members they frequently groom. Selective vocal responses towards the group members with whom strong bonds are shared may allow lemurs to "groom-at-a-distance" when they are separated from each other. Besides contact calls, lemurs also communicate via scent marks. I show evidence that lemurs recognize familiar conspecifics by matching identity information found in the scent marks to those found in the contact calls. Such ability to recognize others is critical for maintaining selectivity in social connections. Social selectivity also has consequences for attention and information transmission. When faced with a novel task, lemurs attend to, and potentially learn from, the group members with whom they share affiliative connections. Social play, in particular, stands out among other connections in reliably predicting the patterns of both selective attention (who observes whom solve the task) and information transmission (who solves the task when). Overall, these results demonstrate positive relationships between selective social connections, communication, attention, and learning. Advisors/Committee Members: Ghazanfar, Asif A (advisor), Rubenstein, Daniel I (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Animal cognition; Communication; Individual recognition; Information transmission; Lemur catta; Social networks

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kulahci, I. G. (2014). Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning . (Doctoral Dissertation). Princeton University. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jh09z

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kulahci, Ipek Gokce. “Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning .” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Princeton University. Accessed January 16, 2021. http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jh09z.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kulahci, Ipek Gokce. “Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning .” 2014. Web. 16 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Kulahci IG. Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Princeton University; 2014. [cited 2021 Jan 16]. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jh09z.

Council of Science Editors:

Kulahci IG. Social interactions predict patterns of communication and learning . [Doctoral Dissertation]. Princeton University; 2014. Available from: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jh09z

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