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You searched for +publisher:"Penn State University" +contributor:("Maricarmen Planas Silva, Committee Member"). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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Penn State University

1. Whitney, Michael L. NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION .

Degree: 2008, Penn State University

Nuclear export of tRNA is an essential process and long believed to be a unidirectional event. However, recent evidence indicates that mature, cytoplasmic tRNA accumulates in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to amino acid starvation or when nuclear export of tRNA is defective. The mechanism and regulation by which tRNA returns to the nucleus is unclear. To investigate whether this phenomenon occurs as a general response to nutrient starvation we deprived cells of glucose. Employing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we were able to assay the localization of tRNA. During glucose starvation, cytosolic tRNAs accumulated in the nucleus. The accrual of mature tRNA in the nucleus was rapid (within 10 minutes) in response to nutrient starvation and completely reversible in an equally prompt manner. This process did not require new transcription and was independent of the aminoacylation status of tRNA. Investigation into the signal transduction pathways responsible for altering the cellular localization of tRNA revealed the TOR pathway is required for nuclear accumulation of tRNA in response to amino acid starvation, but not glucose starvation. Cells with constitutively low levels of cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity did not accumulate tRNA in the nucleus in response to amino acid or glucose deprivation. As reported with amino acid starvation, the karyopherin Mtr10 was also required for nuclear accumulation of tRNA in response to glucose starvation. Examination of the mechanism by which various multi-copy suppressors are able to suppress defects in tRNA export revealed novel factors involved in cellular distribution of mature tRNA. SOL1 and SOL2 were originally identified as multi-copy suppressors of the loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression phenotype of a mutation in a known tRNA exporter, LOS1. We show that SOL1 and SOL2 did not restore tRNA nuclear export or processing in los1 cells. However, SOL1 and SOL2 are required for normal cellular distribution of mature tRNA and tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression. Similarly, SBP1 was found to suppress the nuclear export defect of a mutation in the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene (TYS1). However, SBP1 did not affect tRNA charging or processing, but was required for proper nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of mature tRNA in fed cells. Together these findings define nutrients and novel factors involved in the cellular localization of tRNA. Regulation of the cellular location of tRNA may provide the cell with a novel mechanism to rapidly and reversibly alter gene expression. Advisors/Committee Members: Ralph Lauren Keil, Committee Chair/Co-Chair, Anita Klein Hopper, Committee Member, Scot R Kimball, Committee Member, David Joseph Spector, Committee Member, Maricarmen Planas Silva, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: tRNA nuclear import; transfer RNA; : glucose starvation; yeast

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Whitney, M. L. (2008). NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION . (Thesis). Penn State University. Retrieved from https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7559

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Whitney, Michael L. “NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION .” 2008. Thesis, Penn State University. Accessed March 03, 2021. https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7559.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Whitney, Michael L. “NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION .” 2008. Web. 03 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Whitney ML. NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION . [Internet] [Thesis]. Penn State University; 2008. [cited 2021 Mar 03]. Available from: https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7559.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Whitney ML. NUCLEAR ACCUMULATION OF MATURE tRNA: CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND NUTRIENTS THAT AFFECT tRNA CELLULAR DISTRIBUTION . [Thesis]. Penn State University; 2008. Available from: https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7559

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Penn State University

2. Rowzee, Anne Marie. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH .

Degree: 2008, Penn State University

The ultimate function of the mammary gland is to nourish newborns to sustain mammalian life post-partum. Development and differentiation of the mammary gland occurs postnatally under the control of a complex system of hormonal and environmental cues making the mammary gland an important model of study for both developmental biology and endocrinology. Furthermore, breast cancer is the “number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women” and the “second most common cause of cancer death in white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native women” according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These statistics make it clear that ongoing research in both breast cancer and normal mammary gland development is imperative to women’s health. The primary cause of breast cancer is transformation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that result in unregulated cell proliferation and subsequent mammary carcinomas. Several components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, the IGF ligands and the IGF-type I receptor (IGF-1R) in particular, regulate both normal and transformed MEC growth. Previous studies from our laboratory examined expression of the IGF ligands and the IGF-1R in normal mammary gland development and demonstrated that the IGF ligands and the IGF-1R are expressed in distinct patterns during normal development. Subsequent analysis of receptor affinity for IGF ligands demonstrated that the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) is an IGF-II-sensitive signaling receptor and furthermore, that hybrid receptors consisting of equal parts IGF-1R and insulin receptor (IR), preferentially bind IGF ligands. Herein, we have developed and tested a quantitative PCR assay to accurately measure IGF-1R, IR-A and IR isoform-B (IR-B) expression on the same scale. We have used this assay to quantify mRNA expression of IGF sensitive receptors in primary MECs during mammary gland development. These data demonstrate that IR isoforms are expressed at much higher levels than the IGF-1R at all times. Subsequent protein analysis demonstrated that due to this disproportion, at least 49% of IGF-1R is present as part of a hybrid receptor during pregnancy stages. We next provide preliminary data that demonstrate preferential activation of the IGF-1R rather than hybrid receptors by IGF-I in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that insulin stimulates IGF-1R activation in vivo, either by stimulating classic IGF-1R or IGF-1R present in a hybrid receptor. The importance of IGF-1R signaling in MEC development is further supported by microarray analysis of a MEC-specific conditional deletion of the IGF-1R during post-pubertal development. These data suggest a functional role for IGF-1R signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway in regulating expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules. In the final section of this thesis, we present in vitro data that support the findings of the microarray analysis and demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway stimulates cell cycle… Advisors/Committee Members: Teresa Wood, Committee Chair/Co-Chair, Edward Joseph Gunther, Committee Chair/Co-Chair, Maricarmen Planas Silva, Committee Member, Michael Verderame, Committee Member, Andrea Manni, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor receptor; Insulin receptor; Mammary epithelial cells; Quantitative PCR; Insulin-like growth factors; Epidermal growth factor

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Rowzee, A. M. (2008). EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH . (Thesis). Penn State University. Retrieved from https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7861

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Rowzee, Anne Marie. “EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH .” 2008. Thesis, Penn State University. Accessed March 03, 2021. https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7861.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Rowzee, Anne Marie. “EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH .” 2008. Web. 03 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Rowzee AM. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH . [Internet] [Thesis]. Penn State University; 2008. [cited 2021 Mar 03]. Available from: https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7861.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Rowzee AM. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING RECEPTORS IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL GROWTH . [Thesis]. Penn State University; 2008. Available from: https://submit-etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/7861

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.