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Freie Universität Berlin

1. Gawron, Christiane Katharina. Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients.

Degree: 2016, Freie Universität Berlin

Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients (ADP): there is an automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol. Little is known about the brain processes underlying automatic action tendencies in addiction. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) training, which aims to retrain approach biases, has been shown to reduce alcohol craving and relapse rates. We investigated effects of this training on cue reactivity in ADP. Impairment in inhibitory control has been proposed to contribute to habitual alcohol use. Moreover, ADP have shown a loss of gray matter volume (GMV) in the brain, specifically in prefrontal areas, which are also associated with response inhibition. We evaluated whether prefrontal GMV reduction is related to response inhibition in alcohol dependence. We examined 32 abstinent ADP and 21 healthy controls (HC) with fMRI, while performing an implicit AAT. The ADP received either CBM training or sham training. Alcohol cue reactivity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training. Differences in local GMV between ADP and HC were assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Moreover, mean local GMV reductions were extracted and correlated with behavioral performance on the Stop-signal task (SST) in ADP only. In comparison with HC, ADP had stronger behavioral approach tendencies for alcohol cues than for soft-drink cues. In the approach-alcohol fMRI contrast ADP showed larger blood-oxygen-level- dependent (BOLD) responses in the Nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex and alcohol-craving scores were positively correlated with activity in the amygdala. Before training, alcohol cue-evoked activation was observed in the Amygdala bilaterally. Activation in the amygdala correlated with craving and arousal ratings of alcohol stimuli. After training, the CBM group showed greater reductions in cue-evoked activation in the amygdala bilaterally and in behavioural arousal ratings of alcohol pictures, compared with the sham training group. We found a decreased GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in ADP compared to HC. Further, mean local GMV in this area correlated positively with reaction times on Go trials during the SST in ADP. Our data suggest that brain regions that have a key role in reward and motivation are associated with the automatic alcohol-approach bias in ADP. CBM affects alcohol cue-induced mesolimbic brain activity. Reductions in neural reactivity may be a key underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effectiveness of this training. GMV losses in the IFG in ADP are related to more impulsive behavior on the SST. Advisors/Committee Members: [email protected] (contact), w (gender), N.N. (firstReferee), N. N. (furtherReferee).

Subjects/Keywords: alcohol-dependent; gray matter volume; frontal gyrus; impulsivity; 600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften::610 Medizin und Gesundheit

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APA (6th Edition):

Gawron, C. K. (2016). Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients. (Thesis). Freie Universität Berlin. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/refubium-9997

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Gawron, Christiane Katharina. “Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients.” 2016. Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin. Accessed October 20, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/refubium-9997.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Gawron, Christiane Katharina. “Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients.” 2016. Web. 20 Oct 2020.

Vancouver:

Gawron CK. Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients. [Internet] [Thesis]. Freie Universität Berlin; 2016. [cited 2020 Oct 20]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/refubium-9997.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Gawron CK. Decreased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus is related to stop- signal task performance in alcohol dependent patients. [Thesis]. Freie Universität Berlin; 2016. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/refubium-9997

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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