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Delft University of Technology
1. Bax, Rutger (author). Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar.
Degree: 2019, Delft University of Technology
This thesis research has been conducted to analyse the sediment dynamics in the Yangon Estuary, in order to define the cause for the sedimentation in Monkey Point Channel. For years, Yangon Port has been suffering from limited accessibility due to the sedimentation in the channel and currently daily dredging is required in order to let ships enter the port. The main characteristics of Yangon Estuary are; tidal range of 6 m, high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 6 g/l), a monsoon climate and the presence of a confluence within the tidal range. Research to the cause of sedimentation is done by making a conceptual model of the estuary based on a study area analysis and a literature study to estuarine, riverine and sediment processes. In addition, numerical models are used to improve the conceptual model in a quantitative manner. The conceptual model resulted in the following findings. The fluctuations in SSC are dominantly determined by the tide. During the monsoon season suspended sediment is brought in the system mainly by the Yangon River discharge, causing for averaged SSC values of 1 g/l during the season. In dry season, the SSC shows a fortnightly rhythm caused by the spring/neap cycle. Strong spring tidal currents cause for high bed shear stresses on the shoals, exceeding 1 N/m2, which erodes the stationary fluid mud layers. Due to the dispersion of the mud, the SSC rises rapidly up to 5 g/l. During neap tides the bed shear stress is much less, enabling the fine sediments to settle on the shoals and restore the fluid mud layers. Hence, the SSC values reduce to less than 0.5 g/l. During the monsoon, the spring flood current is reduced due to the seaward directed river discharge. Therefore, the spring flood currents are insufficient to erode the stationary fluid mud layers, hence the SSC are less than during spring tide in the dry season. In contrast to the fluctuations in erosion and deposition of mud on the shoals, almost continuously deposition and consolidation of mud is possible in Monkey Point Channel. This is possible because the channel is located in the stagnation-zone where both during flood (bifurcation) and ebb (confluence) the flow velocities and bed shear stresses sufficiently low to let mud settle. After deposition the mud is not resuspended, and consolidation causes the mud layer to become thicker and become problematic for the ship traffic. To conclude; the combination of high SSC with the possibility of consolidation of deposited mud in the stagnation-zone results in too hard layers to sail through. This potential cause corresponds with the dredged material from the channel bed and the sedimentation rate in the channel. It is recommended to relocate the navigation channel outside the stagnation-zone. The combination of land reclamation at the western estuary bank downstream of the confluence and a dredged channel shows the most promising results. However, more research is required to determine the long-term sedimentation rates in the new channel.
Hydraulic…Advisors/Committee Members: Aarninkhof, Stefan (mentor), Blom, Astrid (graduation committee), van Maren, Bas (graduation committee), Janssen, M.P.J. (graduation committee), Schuurman, F. (graduation committee), Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution).
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APA (6th Edition):
Bax, R. (. (2019). Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar. (Masters Thesis). Delft University of Technology. Retrieved from http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:92f6a8a5-b779-4777-88b5-2c4e42de9d2a
Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):
Bax, Rutger (author). “Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar.” 2019. Masters Thesis, Delft University of Technology. Accessed January 16, 2021. http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:92f6a8a5-b779-4777-88b5-2c4e42de9d2a.
MLA Handbook (7th Edition):
Bax, Rutger (author). “Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar.” 2019. Web. 16 Jan 2021.
Bax R(. Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Delft University of Technology; 2019. [cited 2021 Jan 16]. Available from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:92f6a8a5-b779-4777-88b5-2c4e42de9d2a.
Council of Science Editors:
Bax R(. Mixed Sediment Dynamics at a Tide-Dominated Confluence: A case study on the Yangon Estuary, Myanmar. [Masters Thesis]. Delft University of Technology; 2019. Available from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:92f6a8a5-b779-4777-88b5-2c4e42de9d2a